If a person, as a result of injuries (including industrial), serious illnesses or birth defects, becomes fully or partially incapacitated, he is considered a disability category. According to the degree of complexity of the disease, there is a division into disability groups, which are divided into three categories.
So, the first group of disabilities includes patients who have acquired defects that lead to persistent violations of the basic functions of the body. Such violations lead to complete incapacity or to limit the possibility of self-service. As a rule, people with disabilities in the first group cannot serve themselves without assistance, are not able to do without outside care, are incapable, cannot work independently and provide for themselves. Such patients are completely dependent on a second person who helps them. The diagnoses by which this group is established are incurable or only partially treatable.
The criteria for determining the disability group are, as a rule, the following: the degree of difficulty in hearing damage, vision, smell, touch, damage to the musculoskeletal system, the ability to control behavioral reactions, level of learning, spatial orientation and level of disability. In turn, each of the listed criteria is divided into degrees (they are divided into three main). The higher the degree of difficulty, the harder the disability group. Disability groups determine the level of injury that a patient has.
The second group of disabilities includes patients who have an orientation ability, the ability to communicate, and the ability to carry out labor activity of the second degree. In this case, the patient can only be trained in specialized educational institutions, where only specialized general education programs should be used. People of the second group of disabilities can work only in those conditions that are created specifically for them, they must comply with a certain mode of work, including the alternation of work and rest, compliance with medical regulations. In the room where the disabled person of the second group works, there should be constant access to medical care, as well as the opportunity to work at home.
Representatives of the third group of disabilities are people with persistent impairment of health, but quite adequate and capable. In their case, there is a moderate restriction of vital activity and legal capacity, they need to be provided with social protection and help. Disorders in this group include disorders in which the patient cannot physically load himself, his labor volumes are reduced by about a quarter of the total. As a rule, it will be difficult for such people to learn a new profession or get an education, which is associated with great physical and emotional stress.
Disability groups and their degrees of difficulty indicate that patients should be constantly monitored by the attending physician, regularly undergo perekomissii, which are designed to monitor any changes in the patient’s health status.
Patients of any disability group are subject to changes in their state of health, which can occur both in the direction of improvement and in the opposite direction. This means that the slightest violation of the physical or psychological health of the patient should not go unnoticed by the doctor. This largely depends on the patients themselves, who must strictly comply with all instructions and prescriptions intended for them. Cooperation in this matter is one of the criteria for the success of treatment!