Human society consists of many organizations, which can be called associations of people pursuing specific goals. They have a number of differences. However, all of them have a number of common characteristics. The essence and concept of organization will be discussed later.
Considering the essence and concept of organization, it is worth noting that it has many definitions. You should learn more about the main ones. An organization is a form of cooperation between people who work together within a single structure. This is a system that is designed to perform certain functions.
Organization is also understood as internal interaction and orderliness, coordination of autonomous or sufficiently differentiated departments, parts of a single whole. This definition is due to the special structure.
Considering the essence and concept of organization, it is worth noting another definition. This is the total amount of all processes and actions that lead to the formation of parts of a single whole and the improvement of their interconnections.
It is also an association of people who together strive to achieve their goals, to implement a specific program. They operate on the basis of certain rules, regulated procedures.
Also, organization means social education, which is coordinated consciously and at the same time has corresponding boundaries. It works on an ongoing basis, striving to achieve common goals. Over time, previously established boundaries may change. Each member of the organization makes a certain contribution to the common cause. Informal coordination of the interaction of all participants in education is required.
The main structures of the organization have certain characteristics. They determine how tasks should be distributed in order for joint activities to be successful. The formation of the organization’s structure should be carried out so that all its components interact freely with each other, so the following characteristics are inherent in it:
- Complexity This is the degree of distribution of responsibilities, differentiation within the framework of the association. This concept includes the degree of specialization, as well as the number of hierarchical levels. Complexity determines the degree of distribution of structural elements across the territory.
- Formalization. These are the rules that were developed in advance in order to streamline the behavior of participants, regulating the acceptable actions of all the constituent elements of the group.
- The ratio of decentralization and centralization. This characteristic of the system is determined by the levels at which development and decision-making takes place.
It is worth noting that, regardless of structure, form and type, any organization has a mission that brings people together to achieve a higher goal.
Organization theory includes several different points of view and approaches to the definition of such social education:
- Bureaucratic theory of Weber. It was proposed by a German sociologist, economist, who formulated the concept of bureaucracy. This, in his opinion, is an organization that has characteristic properties. Today, the concept of bureaucracy is understood as the absurdity of rules, red tape, and even some cruelty. However, in the theory of organization, such negative manifestations of bureaucracy are only potential. This quality combines versatility, performance and predictability. Such a system can be organized if the general goals of the organization are known, and the work can be divided into separate components. Also, the end result that the bureaucratic organization seeks to be simple. This will allow for central planning.
- Theory of A. Fayol. This is a representative of the administrative school. Classical organizational theory in this case considers the union as a machine, which is a faceless system. It is built from formal ties, goals and has a multi-level hierarchy. The organization is presented in this case as a tool for solving the tasks. The man in it is abstract. A. Fayol divided the management procedure into five stages: organization, planning, staff selection and placement, control and motivation.
- Scientific Management F.V. Taylor. This is a representative of the school of scientific management. He developed several methods of organizing labor, which were based on the use of timekeeping in the study of workers' movements. Tools and methods of labor in this case were standardized.
- The natural theory of T. Parsons and R. Merton. It is assumed that the organization functions as an independently occurring process. There is a subjective beginning in it, but it does not prevail in the total mass. At the same time, the organization of the system is a state that allows it to independently configure itself under external or internal influences. The goal is only one of the possible results of the work. Moreover, deviation from the task is not considered as an error, but as a natural quality of the entire system. This is due to the action of a number of factors that were not calculated in advance.
Considering the basics of building organizations, it is worth noting that in this process the principle of consistency is applied. This allows you to streamline the relationship between all disparate elements. The system allows you to outline a certain integrity, which is built from interdependent components. Each of them makes a certain contribution to the whole.
Any organization is a system. They can be very different. So, for example, a machine, household appliances, etc. are systems. They consist of certain components, the joint work of which ensures the functioning of the entire community. Our whole life depends on the interaction of certain elements that affect its course.
Since people are components of society, in combination with technology, they perform a variety of tasks. Their functions can be compared with the work of the body. The individual parts interact to ensure system operation.
Among the requirements for the organization, the main one is a systematic approach. The studied object should be considered as integral. Moreover, in an organization, the solution of particular problems is subject to general principles that are characteristic of the entire system.
When studying a system, analysis should not be limited only to the functioning mechanism, it can be supplemented by internal laws of development. It is worth considering that some elements of the system, which in some conditions are considered secondary in the study, can become basic in other conditions.
Studying the typology and classification of organizations, it is worth noting that there are open and closed systems. This feature determines how the object of study responds to external influences. The systemic qualities of the organization are:
Mandatory components and features
The essence and concept of the organization should be considered from the perspective of its mandatory components. So, it has several mandatory components:
- The technical component. This is a community of material components. These include buildings, equipment, working conditions, special technologies and more. It is this set of features that determines the composition of the participants in the organization, its employees.
- The social component. This is a community of participants, as well as their formal and informal associations. Also, this component includes the connections that arise between all participants, the norms of interaction and behavior, the sphere of influence.
- Social and technical component. This is a set of jobs or the number of participants in the organization.
The organization has a number of features:
- Integrity. The system is formed of many separate elements that interact with each other.
- Clear form. The connection of all elements must be ordered.
- Common goal. All elements work to achieve a single result.
Studying the definition of organization, the types of organizations are worth noting that they differ in a number of ways. There are two main varieties:
- Informal organization. This is a group of people that arose spontaneously. They regularly communicate with each other, as they have common interests.
- Formal organization. This is a legal entity, the goals of which are fixed in the constituent documentation. The functioning of such an association is stipulated in regulations, acts, etc. They regulate the responsibility of each participant, as well as their rights.
It is worth noting that formal organizations are divided into commercial and non-commercial types. In the first case, it is a company that is engaged in systematic profit-making in the course of carrying out its core business. In this case, a commercial organization uses certain property, sells goods or provides services.
A nonprofit organization does not aim to make a profit. Her income is not distributed among the participants.
Organizations can differ in a list of characteristics, so there are so many. First of all, they differ in the form of ownership of the organization. The following forms are known:
In addition to ownership, organizations may have different characteristics. According to their intended purpose, there are companies that are engaged in the production of products, the provision of services, the performance of certain works.
By the breadth of their production profile, companies can be specialized or diversified. In the first case, the organization is engaged in the production of one profile. Companies of the second type, wanting to reduce the degree of risk, produce several different products at once.
Also distinguished enterprises are scientific, industrial and scientific-industrial. The number of production stages may also vary. According to this criterion, single- and multi-stage organizations are distinguished. The location of the company may be:
- at one geographical point;
- in one territory;
- at different geographical points.
It is worth paying attention to the concept and stages of the life cycle of an organization. Each association determines the corresponding stages of development. The life cycle is the set of stages that any organization goes through during its life cycle. In total there are 5 stages of such a cycle:
- Stage of entrepreneurship. This is the creation of a company, its birth. During this period, the goals are still vague. To advance to the next stage, a creative process is applied by managers. This requires stability in the flow of resources.
- Collectivity Stage. There is an increase in the welfare of the company, its development. In this case, the rules are formalized, high obligations appear. At this stage, the company forms a mission, is engaged in the development of innovative processes.
- Management stage. This is a period of company maturity. Its structure is stabilizing, and the role of leadership is increasing many times. Emphasis is placed on the effectiveness of the development of the company.
- Stage of development of the structure. There is a recession, which requires complicating the structure of the organization. There is a decentralization and diversification in the market.
- Stage of leaving the market. There is a high turnover of staff, within the team and with partners there are conflicts.
The development of the organization also goes through several stages.
They are slightly different from the phased life cycle and may be as follows:
- Birth. At this stage, the company's goal is survival. She must be able to enter the market. In this case, the control method is selected by one person making decisions. It is required to achieve profit maximization.
- Childhood. Profit during this stage is short-term. The company provides its own existence with a small group of leaders (like-minded people). The organizational model is profit optimization.
- Adolescence. The company's goal at this stage is accelerated growth. She seeks to gain a large market share. The management method at this stage involves the delegation of the authority of managers to middle managers. Profit in this case becomes planned.
- Early maturity. An organization needs systematic growth, but it can become multilateral, which is a problem. There is a decentralization of power. The company has a good position in the market.
- The heyday of strength. Balanced growth is required, for which a centralized management method is chosen. The company needs autonomy, assumes social responsibility.
- Full maturity. The company's goal at this stage of development is uniqueness, but it is important to maintain a balance of interests. Management is a collegial method. The company takes on the features of a social institution.
- Aging. An organization needs stability, so it enhances service. Leadership in its activities is based on tradition, bureaucracy is growing.
- Update. The company seeks to rejuvenate, restore its former position. An adversarial management method is chosen. The company is reborn, like the Phoenix.