In industrial construction, an important place is occupied by single-story structures. They have some characteristic features. A one-story industrial building (SCF) may relate to one or another type. This determines its operational features, scope. Features of such structures will be discussed in detail below.
The construction of one-story industrial buildings has several advantages and disadvantages.
This determines the features of the operation of such facilities. The positive characteristics of the SCR are:
- They are universal in construction technology. You can create larger spans, which provides a large selection of planning solutions. They are more flexible and mobile, which can satisfy the needs of production. One-story buildings withstand a large load on the floor. Here it is quite possible to place a large number of large-sized machines, production lines, machine tools.
- The building is compact, which allows for maximum blocking. At the same time, overhead lighting will be the best solution.
- With the correct design of a one-story industrial building, it is possible to provide a sufficient level of natural lighting, ventilation systems. To do this, similar systems are created through the roof. It always runs parallel to the work surface.
- Efficient, simpler building operation. Here you can use both floor-mounted varieties of electric or gasoline vehicles, and bridge cranes.
- Simplified connections are created between the rooms. They will only be horizontal. Therefore, the number of loading and unloading operations will be minimal. Pedestrian communications will also be simpler. They are often equipped at the second level, since it is necessary to exclude their intersection with freight transport. This makes the work of personnel and the operation of freight transport more efficient and safe.
- Industrialization of construction is facilitated, which allows for a more simplified unification, reducing the number of sizes of structural elements. This allows you to significantly speed up the construction process. The installation of the frame of a one-story industrial building can be performed in parallel, simultaneously. The front of work in this case is wide.
But the presented variety of industrial buildings has a number of disadvantages. You should find out about them before starting the construction and operation of the building.
It is worth noting that the installation of one-story industrial buildings is not always possible.
This is due to several disadvantages of such designs. The main ones are the following facts:
- To assemble a solid frame of a one-story industrial building, you need to choose a perfectly flat area. The terrain here should be flat. As a rule, these are fertile soils that are used by agriculture.
- This type of construction is characterized by high costs for providing appropriate indoor conditions. To the microclimate put forward increased requirements. A powerful heating system is installed here, and it is also required to create protection against overheating in the summer months. Operating costs for this reason will be high. Significant energy resources will be required for this, since the area of premises of industrial structures is significant.
- One square meter accounts for a large cubic capacity of air.
- Performing the calculation of a one-story industrial building, the construction organization lays down significant costs for creating high-quality ventilation, proper lighting, heating and air conditioning. Particular attention is paid to the arrangement and maintenance of the roof. If a leak appears, the product may be damaged.
- Cleaning overhead systems is quite difficult.
Despite a number of shortcomings, one-story industrial construction in the total mass is from 70 to 75% in different regions. Such designs are common in the metallurgy, heavy engineering, chemical, energy, food industries, etc. This is due to the versatility of such designs, their suitability for almost all types of production. The only exceptions are flotation factories, mills and other gravitational objects. Restrictions on the use of such objects can be caused mainly by terrain features.
Varieties of designs
The frame of a one-story industrial building can be built on a different principle.
The following types of such structures are distinguished:
- Single span. This is one of the earliest options for single-story industrial buildings. Today, the technology for the construction of such structures has become more advanced. This allowed us to expand the scope of single-span single-story structures.
- Multi-span. This type of industrial building appeared in 1880. At the end of the 19th century, the Moscow crane was invented, which made it possible to create similar designs. Nowadays, multi-span single-story structures are the predominant type of industrial buildings.
- Cellular This type of construction of a one-story industrial building is also called cellular. This is a relatively new direction in this category of construction. He appeared in the 40s of the last century. This was made possible thanks to increased design capabilities as a result of increased technological needs.
- Shadovye. This type of structure was designed specifically for industrial needs. It has several advantages over other types of buildings. Similar projects of one-story industrial buildings allow more full use of natural lighting with wide continuous development. Today, it is the shadovy constructions that are the standard and recognized symbol of industrial buildings.
- Monoblock plant. All warehouse, production, utility rooms in this design are interlocked.
Variants of the frame
Installation of one-story industrial buildings in most cases is carried out using frame technology. For this, rack-mount structures of a unified type are used. When creating single-span buildings, spacers (arched) and frame structures are often used.
Vaults, domes, folds and shells are longitudinal and transverse structural elements. The supporting frame can be of three types:
- reinforced concrete;
Reinforced concrete structures of one-story industrial buildings are columns, and trusses and beams are made of steel or wood.
Sometimes the frame is made incomplete. The walls in this case are made of stone. The type of frame is selected in accordance with the following features:
- features of spans;
- carrying capacity and type of workshop equipment;
- degree of aggressiveness of the working environment;
- fire protection requirements;
- technical and economic indicators;
- other things.
When choosing materials, the size of the spans, the height of the building and the pitch of the columns are taken into account. The nature of the loads acting on the frame depends on the features of construction work. 60% of the total construction cost is occupied by materials, their transportation to the construction site. Therefore, one of the main tasks facing modern industrial construction is to reduce material consumption, as well as the weight of structures. For this reason, reinforced concrete one-story industrial buildings are gradually giving way to lighter steel frames.
In the process of assembling structures of one-story industrial buildings, builders collect transverse and longitudinal structural elements. The first category includes columns, beams, arches, trusses, etc. The longitudinal elements are crane, foundation, strapping beams, roof trusses, floor slabs and ties.
Bearing structures can be performed in the form of spatial schemes. It can be domes, vaults, shells, etc. In this case, the frame elements can be both longitudinal and transverse elements.
If the frame has beam ceilings, it consists of transverse frames. On their crossbars mounted floor slabs. Frame frames are also assembled from vertical columns, horizontal beams. In nodes they are interconnected. Cross beams are needed to give rigidity to the structure in this direction. The slabs that make up the ceilings, vertical steel ties, crane beams also perform similar functions, but in the longitudinal direction.
When designing a building, loads are necessarily calculated. If they are significant in the horizontal direction, they mount the crossbars, which are rigidly fixed with the columns. Of them, longitudinal frame frames are formed. If a reinforced concrete frame is created, it does not use beam ceilings. It consists of vertical columns with capitals, as well as slabs supported on them.
A one-story industrial building has a certain scope, which depends on the structural features of the building. If you need a large production area without columns, choose the structure of the pavilion type. These are versatile buildings with a flexible layout. This allows you to modernize production, change its direction.
Shielded types of SCF allow freer to place equipment, provide more opportunities for process control. As a result, the operation of such an object will be cheaper. At the same time, an optimal microclimate and the best sanitary conditions are created inside the premises.
Multi-span single-story industrial buildings consist of parallel internal compartments. They are fenced off from each other by longitudinal columns. Some spans may rise above the roof. Depending on the type of technological processes, individual compartments can be separated by partitions. They serve simultaneously as reference points in organizing the internal space. This type of SCR is used for production lines with clear process flows. It is also possible to install overhead cranes here.
Cell buildings for industrial use do not have well-formed compartments. This is a solid wide development. Overhead cranes are not used. In-workshop transport can be either outdoor or outboard. Production facilities are universal, can be used in various production processes.
Shedovye ARI represent a wide continuous development. From individual sheds spans are formed. Transport can only be outdoor. This type of building is suitable for productions with small overall dimensions. Also in such rooms you can organize high-quality lighting.
Monoblock buildings are used for small and medium enterprises, sterile industries, as well as for multi-functional technological cycles.
The construction of a one-story industrial building involves the equipping of engineering systems. They ensure the normal functioning of the organization. For this, various communication systems are created. Engineering systems are selected and equipped in accordance with the needs of production. They can be external and internal.
The communication system is carefully thought out even at the planning stage of the building. Schematically, the project indicates the location of external networks located outdoors. The location of internal engineering networks is also very accurately planned. Internal and external communications can be of the following type:
- water supply;
- sewage system;
- heat supply;
- water disposal;
- power supply.
Other specialized systems may also be equipped. It depends on the type of production.
Water supply can be arranged from the nearest reservoir or from the city network. The following nodes are responsible for the quality of water supply to the object:
- Pumping equipment for supplying and raising water.
- Filtration devices that clean the flow of unwanted impurities.
- Storage tanks, allowing you to create water reserves.
Water supply systems can have different purposes. They can be industrial, fire or combined. The production area is necessary to ensure the technical needs of production in water resources, as well as for washing and cooling during the manufacture of products.
Fire communications are laid in rooms where there is a risk of fire. The pressure of water in the event of a dangerous situation is created by the pumps.
Combined systems are mounted at mixed enterprises. Drinking water is supplied to the enterprise, but it can also be used for technical purposes.
Heating communications in a one-story industrial building are significantly different from heating designs for residential premises. This is due to the following features of the buildings:
- significant ceiling height;
- large area of premises;
- due to the installation of a powerful ventilation system, the heat loss in production is higher;
- the heating system must comply with fire safety requirements;
- rapid temperature boosting, which allows the use of heating only during working hours.
Often several types of heating are installed at once in the SCR. The ventilation system is often combined with heating. This is the most economical option. Also in each separate room a radiator system can be installed. This allows you to maintain optimal temperature conditions at each production site.
Ventilation system SCF consists of local and general communications. If a large amount of dust and toxins is released during the production process, the hood is supplemented with special collections. Exhaust systems are located under the ceiling, since the highest concentration of harmful substances is determined in this part of the room. Air inflow is produced from below the structure.
In addition to the hood, one of the essential working conditions for many enterprises is the air conditioning system. For this, different equipment is used. It can be central, precision, multizonal. Chillers or fan coils can also be used.
In order to equip a functional electrical system, the enterprise calculates the total load. This work is carried out at the design stage of the building. To do this, determine the energy needs of production, as well as the amount of electricity that is expended during the maintenance of the building.
Next, the design and installation of high-voltage and low-voltage lines. This creates a wiring arrangement. Its installation is carried out in accordance with construction and fire safety requirements. It is imperative to provide appropriate protective equipment in the system. Some enterprises require a backup power supply. For this, a generator of the corresponding power is purchased.