Columns break down quite often. This happens in most cases from long listening to music at high volume, because at maximum power ordinary household speakers can not function for a long time. They break even from supplying too much voltage to them, otherwise - from connecting to an excessively strong amplifier. But you are unlikely to be told about this in the store. They describe what power they are, but the fact that, working at the limit for a long time, they can break down, no one will tell you. But they are likely to serve their warranty period. Therefore, the average layman and the question arises, how to fix the speakers with his own hands, what is there, in general, breaks down and is not it easier to simply throw them away?
What are regular columns?
Speakers are a simple type of radio equipment. They are a body and speakers built into it . There can be one speaker or, simply, a loudspeaker. But in a more advanced model, there may be several. If the speakers are the same, then they perfectly reproduce a wide range of frequencies. But often they are somewhat different. If there are three different speaker sizes in a column, the largest reproduces low frequencies, the middle reproduces medium frequencies and the smallest, as the people usually call it “tweeter” - high frequencies.
How to fix speakers of the usual type, that is, inactive, in which the amplifier is not built-in? It depends on what kind of breakdown happened. Since it is easy to repair a cracked case, we will not dwell on such nuances. Let's look at the breakdowns associated with the failure of the speakers, because apart from them, there is nothing more to break in ordinary (inactive) speakers.
Very often it happens in the plugs. In this case, ringing with a multimeter is required. Here's how to fix the column in this case:
- First, diagnose the problem. To do this, first of all, remove the cover by unscrewing the fasteners.
- We put the multimeter (tester) on the bell and, alternately touching all the contacts of the plug in places of the rations of the conductor coming from the plug to the column board, we look for matches. If at least one of the contacts does not ring, that is, does not reject the arrow or rejects hardly, then the problem is either in the wire or in the plug.
- We change the wire and the plug together so that "the head does not hurt."
- We twist the lid of the column, check, repair is over.
In the current columns, plugs are not provided. Therefore, you need to ring the wire itself by squeezing the contacts (clothespins) on the column and on the amplifier. If at least one core does not ring, change the wire, and everything is in order.
Failure of "tweeters"
To the question of whether it is possible to fix the column if one of the speakers burned out in it, we can answer. But in the case of the “tweeter”, that is, with the high-frequency speaker, this is treated only by replacement, since for such speakers the diffuser basket is closed and you should not try to disassemble it. This item is disposable.
A malfunction is determined by ear. If the speaker ceases to clatter, that is - to give out high frequencies, or the top speaker gives out a rattle, then the problem is in the “beeper”. What do we do:
- Open the cover by unscrewing the fixing screws.
- We check the presence of soldering integrity on the contacts of the low-frequency speaker, that is, if the wires have fallen off from the contacts of the speaker. If everything is normal, then the problem is 100% in the squeaker itself.
- We dissolve the conductors from it, noting which wire was on the plus, which is on the minus (there are signs on the side near the contacts).
- We take a new (or used, but working) squeaker in a radio store or from acquaintances, if someone is lying around idle. The main thing is that the speaker should be suitable for power. It’s best to take it with you to the store. There, people, if anything, will find an analogue in size.
- Put in place. In order for the column to work without extraneous noise and produce high-quality sound, it is best to place the speaker around the circumference of the sealant, making sure that it does not in any way fall on the funnel of the diffuser.
- Solder the wires. Plus - to plus, minus - to minus.
- Close the lid of the column by tightening all the screws.
- We check. Everything works great.
Failure of the midrange speaker
This speaker can be repaired if the membrane that holds the diffuser in the center or inside the circular slot of the magnet, into which the diffuser coil goes, has come off. In this case, the speaker wheezes. And if only one of the three speakers wheezes, then the problem is only in it. How to fix the column for music in these cases, we will describe below. If you do not want to bother with repairing the speaker, but want to replace it with another one of the same or its analogue, proceed as in the case with the “tweeter”.
Failure of the woofer
If the upper small speaker hums as it should, the middle one sings, and only the large lower speaker wheezes, problems with it are solved in the same way as with the mid-range speaker. Damage to him can be the same. To replace with a new one, simply buy it and follow the instructions above.
Separation of the spider (centering washer of the diffuser)
How to fix the speaker on the column if the centering washer membrane is torn off? We follow the following instructions:
- To diagnose the problem, remove the cover.
- We turn off the problem speaker from the case, soldering the wires from it. If a plug to the board is provided from the speaker, disconnect it.
- Inspect the spider. If it is torn from the basket body, it should be glued into place. This is done with glue "Moment" or similar.
- Carefully clean the place in a circle where the membrane is glued. Garbage should in no way get into the slot of the diffuser coil, so it is best to soften the old glue with acetone and simply wipe it with a cloth.
- Let’s dry.
- Glue the centering washer into place. Until the glue has set, we center the diffuser. When pressed, the coil in the slot should walk freely and should not emit extraneous grinding sounds. Otherwise, the repaired speaker will wheeze.
- After 24 hours, you can assemble the column in the reverse order, as disassembled.
- We connect, we check. If everything is in order, enjoy. If it wheezes, either debris in the slot of the coil, or the coil winding itself is damaged by rubbing itself against the walls for a long time without a spider. Then read on.
Debris coil getting into the gap
This is also treated, but here you have to tinker longer and it’s not a fact that you will be able to remove the diffuser qualitatively and clean the slot from pollution, and then put it back on the glue. How can I fix the column in this case:
- Open the lid.
- We solder (disconnect) the wires and remove the speaker.
- We take a cotton or other rope, impregnate it in acetone and place the perimeter of the fit of the upper part of the funnel of the diffuser to the basket body.
- We do the same with the centering washer, since the diffuser will have to be dismantled completely.
- When the glue softens sufficiently, gently tear off the diffuser from the upper rim of the basket, and the spider from its circumference-bed.
- Remove the diffuser and clean the slot from debris. This can be done with a compressor, vacuum cleaner, various mechanical devices, such as cardboard. In no case should you pick your finger in the slot of the magnet with glands. If you scratch the surface of the walls, the speaker will creak as the coil will rub against burrs.
- When everything is cleared, we assemble the speaker in the reverse order, as it was disassembled.
- After immersing the coils in the slot of the magnet, before you tightly put it on the glue, the diffuser should be carefully centered so that no squeaks can be heard when the diffuser is immersed down. The coil in the gap should walk silently.
- Next, let the glue dry for 24 hours, collect and test. If everything sounds great, you're great. If not, then you are still well done. At least they tried. But the speaker will have to be replaced with a new one.
And how to fix the speakers for the computer, you ask. We will answer. Computer speakers are all active, that is, with built-in amplifiers. In them, most often, sound microcircuits burn out. If the power light is on, then the power supply is in order. Most likely, the speakers themselves are in order. And you have to solder and solder the chip. It can burn and not one, it can burn resistance, a capacitor, etc.
Since our article is written for the ignorant in radio engineering, we will not describe how to fix this breakdown. Here it is best to turn to the masters. Where can I fix the speakers to the computer? In any service center. They will do everything inexpensively and quickly. But, often, some speaker models cost so much that it’s better to buy new ones, because no matter how cheap it is, sometimes the repair (if it is not under warranty) will take half the cost of the speakers themselves.