Planning is a process of development and establishment by the organization’s management of a set of qualitative and quantitative characteristics that determine the pace and trends of its development, not only at the moment, but also in the long term.
Definition of the term, conditions of highest performance
Planning is the central link in the entire chain of management and regulation of the organization. That is why each structural unit (workshop, laboratory, etc.) develops its own, which are then combined into a general plan of the enterprise.
Planning performs its functions most clearly and efficiently if the following rules are observed:
- each component of all elements is punctually justified;
- scheduled tasks are accurately and timely performed by all of their participants;
- control over the implementation of the plan is carried out continuously in conjunction with its current adjustment.
To date, six general principles have been identified, which are understood as certain rules that contribute to the development of a competent program of action.
- The principle of necessity, i.e. mandatory use of the planning system, regardless of the type of financial and economic activity of the enterprise. The need for planning in a modern developing market economy is due to the ability to minimize the negative impact of external factors and, conversely, maximize their positive impact.
- The principle of unity, i.e. Correspondence of the unified master plan of the organization to the development of its structural units (for example, thematic planning). The principle of unity is a commonality of the main goals and plans of the enterprise, as well as the interaction of all its components. It is based on such a thing as “coordination”. Those. changes made to the plans of any unit should be reflected in the plans of the whole organization in a timely manner.
- The principle of continuity, i.e. the inextricable link between planning and management processes and organization of the enterprise.
- The principle of flexibility, i.e. the ability of all components of the plan to change their focus as necessary due to unforeseen circumstances. To ensure compliance with this principle, a certain reserve is introduced into the organization’s plans, i.e. the ability to make the necessary changes.
- The principle of accuracy, i.e. ensuring compliance of plans with the general goals and capabilities of the enterprise, as well as the time frame.
- The principle of participation, i.e. involvement in the development of all employees of the enterprise. For example, it is reasonable to entrust thematic planning to the heads of the respective departments for its further inclusion in the general plan.
Types of enterprise planning
By the nature of the detail plans are divided into technical, economic and operational production. In the first case, the planning of the main indicators of the organization’s development takes place, and in the second, the current tasks for its structural divisions are compiled.
According to the degree of uncertainty, plans are divided into deterministic and probabilistic. In the first case, we are talking about planning an event whose probability of occurrence is close to unity and is confirmed by reliable information. In the second case, it is based on current information, according to which it can be concluded about the further development of certain indicators (for example, the coefficient of variation).
The content of the enterprise plans are divided into:
- business planning
- social labor
- organizational and technological, etc.
According to the degree of accuracy, they are divided into refined and enlarged.
Enterprise Planning Process
Each enterprise, realizing this need, regularly conducts ongoing planning. What is the enterprise planning process and how does it happen? It begins directly with the preparation of plans (planning system) and determining how to achieve them. The next stage is the implementation, at the end of which the control stage and planning analysis begin, i.e. comparison of the achieved results with the tasks set.
Planning. What are the methods of planning at the enterprise, their classification
The balance method implies the correlation of the needs of the enterprise’s resources and the sources of their support, as well as the correspondence between the structural sections of the plan. For example, the compliance of the actual capacity of the enterprise with its current production tasks.
The calculation and analytical method involves the calculation of certain indicators of the plan, analysis of their growth or decline under the influence of external factors.
Economic and mathematical methods involve the study of performance indicators of the enterprise, the development of various options for the plan and the choice of the best.
The graph-analytical method is used to visualize the results of economic analysis by means of graphic means.
Program-targeted methods - the preparation of certain development programs, i.e. a set of tasks and ways to achieve them, united by common goals and deadlines (for example, planning for each month).
The process of drawing up plans for a long period of time is perspective planning. What is a prospect? This is what management believes the organization expects in the future. Planning has been used recently as a tool for centralized management. Such plans are drawn up for a period of 5 to 20 years and determine the general concept of enterprise development and the structure of the most important measures to achieve the goals.
Long-term planning is divided into medium-term (5 years) and long-term (up to 15 years). In the latter case, the extrapolation method is widely used, which is understood as planning based on indicators of past years.
Current planning. What is a calendar plan?
It is carried out through a detailed disassembly of the operational five-year plan of the enterprise as a whole, as well as its individual structural units. The main components of the current production plan are scheduling (for every day, week, etc.). When compiling them, information is taken into account on the availability of orders, provision of the enterprise with material resources, load factor and utilization of production capacities, etc.
Moving from long-term planning to the calendar plans of the internal units of the enterprise, it is necessary:
- define tasks and indicators for a certain period for each unit;
- find and eliminate possible inconsistencies between the internal plans of the shops;
- distribute all the resources of the enterprise in accordance with its production program.
The main task of an experienced leader is to correctly combine the requirements necessary for the implementation of long-term development with the current tasks and needs of the organization. As a rule, a special planning center deals with this.