Each nation has its own culture, way of life, and tradition. But all have one thing in common - the pursuit of beauty. And if an ancient person had only one goal in arranging housing - to hide from the weather and wild animals, then with the transition to settled life priorities change: the development of science and culture leads to the arrangement of life, housing is decorated. The development of crafts in a particular area depends on the availability of materials and minerals. Thus, in the region of the northern seas, where fishing and hunting are the main industries, walrus bone carving is born. In mountainous regions with large ore reserves, blacksmithing is developing. Forest regions are rich in wood. It has long been used for housing construction and home improvement. Finishing field work, the peasants, in order to pass the long winter evenings, are engaged in woodcarving. Over time, a fascinating hobby turns into the main craft.
Many achieve this unprecedented skill. Products of masters have the right to compete with the works of famous artists. Yes, and why compare? With the help of a simple tool and imagination, the hands of a master from the most ordinary wood create unusual and rare masterpieces. Art woodcarving is a truly unique phenomenon.
Wood carving: main types
Over time, this type of applied art not only did not lose its popularity, but, on the contrary, gained development. Depending on the type of materials used and the method of processing, new types of wood carving are distinguished: embossed, flat-relief, sculptural, plano-concave and sawn. The main difference is the location of the pattern relative to the surface or background of the work. Each of these types has its own implementation techniques, tasks, and the final result. Let us dwell on each of them in more detail.
This is one of the ways of carving when the background is completely removed from the canvas. It has other names: slotted or through wood carving.
This term accurately describes the processing of wood. It perfectly combines geometric carving and relief. This is one of the oldest techniques, it requires a certain skill and dexterity, such as, for example, openwork thread. The technique here is as follows: the workpiece is fixed, plotted, the main drawing is applied and holes are drilled for the saw. Sawing and subsequent preparation of the material for work are carried out along the contour: chamfering and chipping of the workpiece with sandpaper. The effect of lightness, lightness, weightlessness is created. The work is so delicate and elegant that it is sometimes difficult to believe that wood was used.
Flat Relief Carving
All types of woodcarving are distinguished by their relation to the background: it is either absent, or is in the same plane with the pattern, or is recessed several millimeters inward. The background is the surface of the products, which are decorated with geometric shapes or a floral pattern. In this case, it is removed around the surface of the picture and cuts 5-7 mm deep into the canvas. The work is performed in such a way that the background and the drawing are both in the same plane, but at the same time they look voluminous, and in different: the picture rises above the background due to the recesses along its contour, but at the same time all the details are at the same height. Figures of people, animals and birds, elements of the plant world are usually depicted in this style. It all depends on the ideas of the master and the technique of execution. Most often, flat-relief carvings are used in architecture and arts and crafts.
All kinds of wood carvings require some skill and skill. You need to start with the simplest patterns. In order to correctly understand the essence of each element, it is better for a beginner to reproduce new and more complex details from plasticine, and then proceed to the processing of wood. This also applies to embossed carvings.
It is rightfully considered the most picturesque. This is a pattern carved in wood, processed over the entire surface and convex relative to the background. As an idea, images of flora and fauna, monograms, various symbols, geometric shapes can be used. The quality of the finished product directly depends on the choice of wood. In this case, birch, oak, and beech are good to use. Their wood makes it possible to clearly work out each element down to the smallest detail, to clearly outline the contours. The background in this case is cut off to underestimate all the details of the ornament with respect to the main pattern at all the same points of its parts. Further, in the lower sections, the ornament is restored. Then the background is selected and polished. This is a rather laborious technique. Therefore, it requires patience and certain experience.
Considering the main types of woodcarving, it is impossible to ignore the sculptural.
This method of wood processing allows you to create three-dimensional images without a background - sculptures that can be viewed from all sides. The technique is used mainly in the process of making souvenirs, toys, household items, for decorating the interior.
A distinctive feature of this type of wood processing is the application of ornament on a flat surface. Depending on the nature of the pattern, this can be a flat-carved thread, that is, the pattern is displayed in the form of grooves, indentations, and flat-relief when the ornament protrudes above the surface.
Each of these species is divided into several subspecies, among which there is a flat-engraved geometric thread. This species is one of the simplest. It has long been used in the decor of various household utensils with a flat surface: cutting boards, wooden utensils, furniture. Of the tools, only a jamb knife is used, and geometric figures are used as a pattern: square, rhombus, triangle, circle, oval, and combinations thereof. Interestingly, in ancient times, geometric carving was not used as a simple decoration. Each element was symbolic, served as a talisman.
So, we examined the main types of wood carving. Of course, this material is not one article. And not even one book. The experience of the masters has been passed down from generation to generation for many centuries. Something, unfortunately, has been lost, but something has been preserved, modified and has grown into a new industry. And this is a good sign. He once again proves that this type of decorative art continues to develop. And today it is no less popular than several centuries ago.