Today, the popularity of various development centers is growing, where teachers are engaged with children, forming a diverse personality. And parents try to take their child to such classes as much as possible and capable. Someone is limited to the last year before school, others start attending groups starting from 1 year. And one of the most popular today is the Montessori technique for children. Today it will be discussed.
This term is becoming increasingly popular today, while few people fully understand what is behind it. Most of the young parents realized that it’s very important for the child to go to the development centers, and the sooner this is started, the better. And constantly on hearing the development of children according to the Montessori method. Accordingly, the choice of the center will also be obvious.
Of course, there is an opposite opinion. Some of the opponents say that until 3 years old, all that a baby needs is his mother. It is difficult not to admit that they are right. Others even say that the Montessori method was developed for children with developmental disabilities, and therefore is completely unsuitable for ordinary ones. In both cases there is some truth. It is not at all necessary for each parent to take his baby to the Montessori office, he can develop harmoniously even without it. But part of the equipment and tools can be adopted for home use.
To understand well what is at stake, let's go from the very origins. Maria Montessori is a famous teacher. She was a certified female doctor. This allowed her to successfully work with special children.
The achievements of psychologists, educators and doctors of those years were not very impressive. Children with developmental delays were simply isolated from the rest, giving them to special boarding schools. Maria, having worked as a teacher, invented her own methodology for children. Montessori understood well the importance of working with all the senses, which formed the basis of her method. The results were simply stunning. Pupils did not just catch up with their healthy peers, they passed exams with ordinary elementary school graduates and were ahead of them in many ways. And then the system was seriously interested in the scientific community. But the author of the methodology was haunted by the idea that you can deal with ordinary children, developing them even more. A few years later, she began working with healthy guys. This also became a contribution to teaching practice.
The essence and principles
Classes with children according to the Montessori method should be as natural as possible. No need to forcibly try to put knowledge into the baby. He absorbs what he can do today. And to what has not yet matured - will master tomorrow. Your task is to provide favorable conditions. This means creating a safe environment saturated with various stimulus objects that the child can freely use.
That is, the teacher should well understand that the child is an integral personality that is capable of self-development. The main difficulty here is that his development does not proceed as in an adult. And since we already forget ourselves in childhood, sometimes we cannot understand and correctly evaluate his needs. The teacher’s task is not to give ready-made solutions, and this is the most difficult thing to do. For this, special material was developed. It allows the child to study the material of the lesson himself, as well as find errors and correct them. This simultaneously increases both responsibility and independence.
Classes with children according to the Montessori method are held in a specially equipped space. They call it that - the Montessori room. Classically, it is divided into 5 zones, each of which is responsible for the formation of certain skills. However, there is no clear outline of what and when a child should do. Of course, even if you give the five-year-old child five alphabets, he is still not able to independently learn to read. But no one will stop him from visiting this zone, touching the rough letters.
So, the author of the methodology identifies 5 zones:
- Zone of practical life. Here, the child receives invaluable self-care skills. Depending on the features of the center, it can be equipped with a kitchen, where the guys bake cookies and cook soup. They set the table themselves and clean the dishes. There is a basin to wash handkerchiefs, and a rope on which they are hung to dry. Be sure to cook a set of brushes and dustpan.
- Zone of sensory development. These are our hearing and sight, touch and sense of smell. Here are toys-stimuli that contribute to the development of sensory organs.
- The language zone.
- Space zone.
- Section of natural and exact sciences.
All benefits are made from natural materials. Most often this is wood and clay.
Montessori's method of developing children is based on the principles of natural development. As mentioned above, the child acquires the skills for which the base is prepared. Even L. S. Vygotsky, in his writings, said that there is a zone of actual development and a sensitive period for certain skills. That is, right now the child is as ready as possible to master this or that lesson.
The most important work on the development of personality falls on the age from birth to school. However, many parents believe that there is no need to specifically do anything. Everyone has grown, and their baby will grow up. Someone sincerely believes that this should be done in the garden and school. But do not forget that this is only your child, and no one else is interested in whether he will become successful in this life. Of course, all parents are very busy at work. But you do not need much time. You can do it every day for 10-15 minutes, and this will be more than enough.
These dates are not final, they are averaged. In some children, this can happen a little earlier or later. This does not mean genius or, conversely, a developmental lag. These are just the features of a particular child, no more and no less.
How development happens in practice
Montessori's method of early development of a child is following him, active help and support. But the lead is the baby himself. See for yourself. The child begins active sensory development. It is for this that various benefits are needed in the room. Interested in small items? Well, this is necessary for the maturation of the cerebral cortex, which are responsible for motor and speech. Let pour buckwheat and rice, pour the water, draw with fingers on the sand and fold the beads.
Appearance in Russia
Montessori's method of raising a child began to be practiced in other countries. They admired them, because the children who were brought up according to this system were distinguished by independence and responsibility. They were able to make decisions, which is an important skill for any child.
Montessori's teaching of children has also been criticized. Like all other methods, it has its drawbacks. The main complaints of teachers who started using it in practice are underestimation of role-playing games in the development of babies and a lack of aesthetic development. Opponents also believe that if the child is given the opportunity to choose what he is interested in and what is not, then he may have big problems at school. After all, the program is one for all, and no one will correct it.
In Russia, or rather, in the USSR, this technique appeared in 1913. She did not become the leader, that is, she was not adopted by the education system. Although some elements have been mastered and successfully implemented. When the game room is designed, it is also divided into zones, each of which contains certain toys and stimulus material. A new wave of interest in the technique arose in the 90s and has not subsided since then.
Three whales - three components of success
The Montessori children development methodology is based on three critical components:
- Sensitivity Up to 6 years, the child goes through the most important stages in his development. And it is very important that he receives the necessary skills at each of these stages. This affects life so seriously that losing time is a real crime against the baby. And most often there will be no second opportunity. Therefore, educators and psychologists insist that after 5-6 years the personality has already been formed, and its further success or failure is predetermined.
- For the development to be right, the environment is important. This is the second component of this method. Everything around should correspond to the physical abilities of the child at each stage of his development. Only in a prepared environment can a baby learn all that is needed and become independent.
- The third link is the teacher. An important feature of the method is that the teacher leads the baby to knowledge, and then eliminates and observes. The main rule is "help me do it myself."
Essential Commandments for a Teacher
Montessori's method of developing young children is a huge job for adults who are constantly next to the baby. Just bringing him once a week to class will not be enough, you need to adhere to the principles every day. This is the way to success. And the first thing to remember: children are taught what surrounds them.
- If the baby is criticized, he begins to condemn the whole world.
- Praise the child for his achievements, for what he has done well now. So he learns to evaluate.
- There should not be hostility in relations with the baby, this teaches him to fight.
- If parents are honest with the child, he grows fair.
- Making fun of the baby, you teach him to be timid.
- Living with a sense of security, the baby learns to trust.
- You can not shame a child even for serious misconduct. Otherwise, he will grow with guilt.
- Approve his actions, and he will treat himself well.
- Be lenient - this will teach him to be patient.
- Cheer the baby every day, for any reason. This will give him confidence.
- A child should grow up in an atmosphere of friendship and love and feel fit.
Create home conditions
Having mastered the essence of the Montessori method for children, you can make a choice how it suits you. And of course, each parent will think about how much the minimum set of developmental materials costs. In fact, you can do with what you have at home.
The crumbling world around him seems huge. It was as if he got into the country of giants, where neither tables, nor chairs, nor beds were adapted for him. Anyone will feel helpless. And your task is to simplify his acquaintance with the world. To do this, it is necessary to equip several zones (this can be done by mom and dad):
- We become accustomed to independence. To do this, there must be a zone of everyday life. There should be everything you need, that is, a wash basin and a towel, toothpaste and a brush, a wash basin and a clothes hanger.
- Zone of language development. Bright books, cubes with letters, as well as numbers cut from thick cardboard can be collected here.
- Zone of creativity. Here the child will be waiting for paints and plasticine, musical instruments, pencils and paper.
- Natural Science Zone. Here you need to put everything that tells the baby about the world. That is, figures, pictures depicting animals and plants.
- Zone of sensory development. Different in shape, color and texture of objects. That is, cubes and cylinders, cotton wool and iron, various fabrics.
- Activity zone. That is, any sports corner for children.
The technique of Maria Montessori can be applied not only in specialized centers. Even in an ordinary small apartment, you can successfully arrange the toys in a certain order and thereby highlight the play areas.
One day Montessori
Do you think this is another method divorced from life? No, this is life itself. Montessori teaching children every day, directly in solving daily problems. Remember how often we tell the child that he is still small, and do not allow him to do what he so wants to try. But the task of any parent is to teach the child to cope with the tasks independently.
Here's how to organize a day, for example:
- In the morning everyone wakes up, which means it's time to change clothes. Of course, it is not difficult for an adult to do this, he will open a large closet and take out things. And for the child you need to put the kit on a chair or a special shelf.
- Morning routines. A child should have a pot in the bathroom and a low shelf with a toothpaste and a brush, soap and a mirror.
- Cooking breakfast is also best with the whole family. The crumb can pour cereal into the pan, pour it with milk. And of course, he must then take his seat after breakfast.
- After eating, you can play. Give him the opportunity to choose which zone of his interests lies in today. But one of the most important principles remains "play - clean up after yourself." It is very important that in the game children master life skills. Sculpt vegetables and fruits from plasticine, let the baby learn to cut them with a plastic knife.
- Lunch is approaching - we call the child with us to the kitchen. Let them get vegetables out of the refrigerator and help them wash. You can instruct to wipe the plates or perform some other tasks.
- Going for a walk. Do not forget that the child should be able to remove his things from the hanger. And after returning home, you must definitely hang them in their places.
- Games after a walk are an important point. After all, the experience gained is expressed in the game.
- Going to sleep. Notify your child in advance. He needs to clean up his toys, put everything in its place, make the bed.
- Leave a small lamp on for the night. This will allow the child to get up to the toilet without fear when necessary.
As you can see, there is nothing complicated. In children's centers, the Montessori technique is presented to children in an attractive form, “shiny packaging”. But for its implementation, hundreds of special toys are not needed at all. It only takes your desire to help the child learn all the necessary skills on his own.
From birth to a year
Usually, children from one year old, and somewhere from two years old, are invited to developing centers. Really up to this age kids do not need development? Or does the Montessori method for children under 1 year not work? No, it is universal and it can be used from birth. Principles must be learned by every parent. This is a guarantee that the child will have every chance to grow up happy.
Children have an "absorbent mind." The mind of a growing crumb is like a sponge. He absorbs everything that surrounds him, and does so with great greed. So he needs to be given food. And what happens most often? If the child does not cry, they put him in the crib where he lies and watches the white ceiling. That is, the Montessori method for children of 1 year primarily involves providing the crumbs with the necessary incentives: color, sound, imaginative.
Thus, life gives the baby the opportunity to become like the adults around him. He does not know the grammatical features of the language, but very soon he will be able to not only understand speech, but also speak. This also applies to other areas of life. This technique naturally fits into ordinary life, making it more diverse and colorful, full of opportunities for developing skills.
The advice of psychologists and educators
If older children can come up with options for games and building a learning process, then with crumbs up to a year, at first glance, everything is more complicated. In fact, the development of children at 9 months according to the Montessori method is not much different from the similar process at an older age. You just need to select the forms of activity that are now available to your child.
The movement at this stage of development is the most important aspect. It seems to us that the baby still does not know how. We wrap him in a blanket, put on tight clothes and put him in a small crib. That is, the possibilities for spontaneous movements are quite few. Let's see what can be done to correct the situation:
- A low bed or just a mattress on the floor. This allows you to independently crawl from it after sleep and explore the world without reference to adults.
- Game space is also provided on the floor. To do this, you can lay a rug, from one edge of which to install a mirror, and to lay out toys around the perimeter. He will rise and examine the reflection. And soon he will realize that this is he himself. Do not bother him, let him choose the objects for study.
- Hang mobiles to stimulate movement. It’s not at all necessary to buy expensive ones. It is enough to independently make a dragonfly or bird out of the fabric, and then attach it to a strong cord. Hanging rattles that you can grab or push are also very pleasing to children.
- On the perimeter of the carpet you need to lay out bright and interesting objects that are easy to grab by hand. This is another incentive to start moving.
- Choose clothes that do not constrain movements.
- Avoid equipment that restricts activity. The kid is fastened in a car seat and in a stroller while driving. Add to this arenas, walkers, jumpers and swings that allow you to perform actions without your own efforts, and you will realize that you are depriving the child of the opportunity to train.
- When the child begins to get up, attach a wooden block to the wall. This will be an additional support. You can buy a cart-walker, which is used only to maintain balance.
As you can see, lessons on the Montessori method for children up to a year are very organic and natural. Just help the baby, follow his developmental need, which is inherent in everyone. And this will be enough to unleash the inner potential. Observe, prompt, but do not interfere or limit freedom. This is the best thing you can do for your baby.
For this, the author is most often criticized in the reviews. Montessori's methodology for children is considered by many to be a tool for collecting money from parents. But the author is not to blame for this, but modern realities. Demand creates supply, and marketing prepares attractive advertising. And since they became interested in the methodology, it means that more and more new stimulus material will appear in specialized stores. Moreover, parents will be convinced that he is not only desirable, but also necessary.
In fact, most of the educational toys can be made at home. And from this they will not get worse. What can be done to develop practical skills:
- Frames with clasps. These are wooden frames that are equipped with various clasps. It can be locks, lacing and Velcro, hooks and buttons. They teach specific skills that are needed when undressing and dressing. In addition, they are necessary for the development of fine motor skills.
- Items for pouring and transfusion. A great choice for coordinating movement and developing attention. But this is so simple: you need to give the crumbs a couple of glasses and access to water or a basin with any cereal.
- Cooking items. It is not necessary to give the crumbs a knife. Enough to do a safe cleaning device for carrots and apples.
- Board with locks. Ask dad to attach different locks, heck and other devices to a small section of chipboard or plywood, after which he should be hung on the wall.
- Developing mat. That's where there is room for imagination! On one fabric, you can sew and attach various elements: lacing, beads, rattles, pockets, etc. Engage different materials.
Be friendly with the child and do not reproach him for the mistakes made. If he spilled the juice and wiped it badly behind him, it is enough to simply say: “One more stain needs to be removed - and it will be perfectly clean.” The Montessori method for children from year to year is very variable and can easily be shifted to daily tasks.
Thanks to these subjects, the child will learn to distinguish between such concepts as larger and smaller, thin and thick, long and short.
To do this, in the classic version, the following material is used:
- The brown staircase is 10 wooden prisms, each 20 cm long. The sides are squares with sides from 1 to 10 cm.
- The pink tower. It consists of pink wooden cubes with a rib length of 1 to 10 cm.
- Red rods. This is a set of ten rods, the smallest of which is 10 cm long, and the largest is 1 m.
- Cylinder blocks. These are four sets with nine cylinders in each.
- Colored coils. The first block consists of coils of primary colors, the second - of eleven pairs of different colors, the third includes seven shades of each.
- Mat. Montessori method for children 1-3 years old involves the independent work of the child. So, he needs to be interested. To do this, you can build a rug on which there will be many different parts. You can touch, pull, unfasten them, that is, give free rein to your research interest. By the way, you can make them yourself. It is enough to simply prepare shreds of fabrics, various cereals, pieces of rustling paper and other materials that can be put into action.
Speech Development Aids
If you do not know what to do today, then you can peep ideas in the book “60 lessons with a child according to the Montessori method”. It describes the games themselves, as well as teaching aids. They are easy to do with your own hands:
- Rough letters. They can be made of velvet paper or the smallest emery, and then glued to ordinary cardboard. The kid spells a finger and prepares for writing. This exercise allows you to know the shape of each letter through touch.
- Prescriptions. On plywood, you need to make slots, each of which has its own "carriage", similar to a zipper lock. The child holds the lock through the slot from start to finish.
- Inner frames.
The technique of the early development of Maria Montessori’s children is an open space for creativity not only of parents, but also of children. After all, all toys can be made from improvised material together with the child.
Pros of the technique
Like everyone else, this system has its own advantages and disadvantages. This should be considered when choosing future activities with your baby. First of all, consider its strengths. The Maria Montessori parenting technique is good for group and individual classes, because:
- It helps the child to learn and develop independently.
- There are no negative assessments and actions, that is, punishment and criticism.
- The kid gets used to the order.
- Children involved in this technique begin to read and write early.
- For each baby, you can choose an individual approach, which is very important in working with children with disabilities. The relevance of the Montessori technique in this case is difficult to overestimate. Children who have one or another channel for receiving information are limited, are very vulnerable, and classes conducted with them through such a system can correct the situation.
- Groups are sorted by interest rather than age.
- Groups do not practice competitions and comparisons with other children.
- How, with what and how much to work, the kid chooses.
It would seem that everything is more than rosy. But this system has its drawbacks. primarily because it is not suitable for every child.
- An overactive baby will be very difficult to persuade to do one of the above.
- The technique is not suitable for school standards. Accustomed to moving freely and picking up tasks for interests, the child will adapt for a long time at school.
- Groups of different ages. This can be taken as a minus, but it is rather a plus. The child learns to live in society.
- But the rejection of fairy tales and poems is a big minus. Although today, Montessori system supporters understand this omission and independently supplement the lessons.
- The group lives in its microcosm divorced from reality.
Instead of a conclusion
Despite everything, many families prefer the Montessori method. For children 1-3 years old, it can be called the most loyal of all available. In addition, you can select its individual elements and combine with something else. After all, your child is unique, and no one except you knows what he needs at the moment. The main thing is to learn the principle: the child has everything for development, he needs only a little help, push, praise. And then he will succeed in everything in this life!