While engineers and technologists of large corporations are developing projects for the use of alternative energy sources in industry, home craftsmen are finding ways to use it in households. Moreover, the transition to non-standard energy generators is determined not only by the desire to save on electricity. Disruptions in the supply of electricity are not uncommon in summer cottages and cottage villages, and in some regions central supply networks are completely absent. For owners of remote private estates and just wanting to provide the economy with an independent energy source, the idea of making a homemade wind generator in different variations is proposed.
The principle design of the windmill
At home, it is not difficult to make a generator on wind power. It is enough to take the working part of the propeller or the blade group, connect it to the engine with an electric converter and think over the energy storage system. Then it remains only to organize the technical conditions for the operation of the created infrastructure. The problem is that for more or less significant volumes of production, the design should consist of full-sized working elements. First of all, the wheel axis is calculated, its direction and assembly materials. For example, do-it-yourself vertical homemade wind generators are made of metal plates, specially processed on machines or with hand tools. Incorrect blade geometry may result in loss of traction due to a change in flow direction. This design will work against wind currents.
In turn, horizontal installations are not so demanding on the arrangement of functional organs. They will also need blades of a certain configuration, but with a simplified shape.
In addition to the working mechanical part, the already mentioned engine is included in the design of the windmill. It will have to provide the conversion and accumulation of energy. As a rule, a home-made wind generator for the home is made from motors from household appliances, but there may be other options. Special attention is paid to the supporting structure. It will be formed by a massive base on the basis of metal, a protective case, a frame base for attaching auxiliary units, a rack and other components.
Without preliminary calculation of capacities, it does not make sense to proceed with further development of the wind generator. Ultimately, the method of application of the installation depends on the amount of energy converted. And again, the design performance is determined by the size of the working body and the configuration of its technical design. The average parameters of a homemade wind generator can be represented as follows:
- The diameter of the impeller is 200 cm.
- The number of blade segments is 6.
- The voltage for the generator is 24 watts.
- The current strength is about 250 A.
- Generator power - range from 0.2 to 3 kW.
- Wind speed - up to 12 m / s.
- Battery capacity - 500 A / h
Wheel blade assembly
As already noted, the construction of a complex design of a vertical wind turbine can not do without a metal sheet. Anodized aluminum can be used , but steel segments are better suited for strength characteristics, although they will require machining. In any case, only hard metal will make it possible to assemble reliable blades for the construction of a vertical makeshift wind generator. With your own hands, you can make a wind wheel for horizontal construction with the use of blanks made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Plastic is more malleable in processing, insensitive to environmental influences and lightweight. Its disadvantages rest on mechanical flexibility, so initially you should focus on hard PVC alloys.
Workpieces that are suitable in structure can be found in pressure pipes or gutter segments. In the case of plastic, it is worth focusing on the wall thickness of 5 mm, a length of about 100 cm and a diameter of up to 15 cm. For forming a segment, it is advisable to use a ready-made template, draw contours from it and cut it with an electric jigsaw or a metal saw. The balancing of improvised blades for a wind generator is carried out by grinding and fine-grained grinding of surfaces. All corners and edges are carefully rounded to a single shape.
Next, 6 blade elements should be installed on the base of the wind wheel, into which the generator will then be integrated. Fastening is done through a metal coupling with a diameter of 20 cm and a thickness of 1 cm. By invertor delicate welding, steel landing strips 30 cm long and 1.2 cm wide should be welded to the coupling. Holes for fixing the blades should be provided in them.
Bicycle Motor Generator
The question of choosing a generating installation is probably the most responsible, therefore several options will be considered. The most practical and convenient unit in terms of installation is an electric cycle motor, which can be purchased on average for 7-10 thousand rubles. This will be a model with voltage characteristics up to 250 V and a rotational speed of about 200 r / s. Next, the connection is made of the coupling of the wind wheel and a home-made generator. The wind generator can be fixed to the body with bolts, choosing the holes for the spokes fasteners. The result should be a compact, relatively light, but not the most productive installation for generating electricity. Therefore, it is worth considering alternative options more powerful.
Car Generator Design
In the aggregate of precisely the working qualities, such an installation will be the optimal power unit, and if possible, it is recommended to use tractor and cargo starters. The main difficulty will be the winding of the device with neodymium magnets. They should be glued to the rotor discs. Optimal fit magnetic elements of 25x8 mm format in an amount of 20 pcs. In this case, the poles should be strictly alternated, otherwise the starter will be useless in the design.
It is also worth abandoning round magnets in favor of rectangular. The fact is that a home-made wind generator from a car generator will have to evenly distribute electromagnetic waves, and this function cannot be supported to the necessary extent by round elements. On the external and internal contours of the placement of the magnets also organized lines of the sides. They can be made of plasticine, fixed with epoxy glue. However, for greater reliability, it is worthwhile to fill the entire starter with a binder resin.
Use of induction motor
For convenience, when performing installation work, you can take an asynchronous power plant and, after a simple alteration, combine it with the mechanical working part of the wind turbine. The main part of the refinement will be associated with the turning of the rotor on a lathe. Finishing is done under the thickness of the magnetic elements. The processing problem is related to the fact that the design of induction motors does not provide for special sleeves for inserting magnets, so the grooves are bored on their own.
As in the case of the selection of rectangular electromagnetic elements, the formation of inserts in the housing is done for the correct direction of the field to the starter. After technical refinement and implementation of working equipment, it is possible to fill the structure with epoxy resin. The output should be a homemade wind generator of 2 kW and above - the performance will depend on the rated power and format of the magnets used. By the way, do not be afraid that the adhesive treatment field will drop a little voltage. It does not matter for the performance of the wind turbine, but the current can well increase.
Using a Homemade Magnetic Generator
To service small batteries, you can limit yourself to installing a starter of your own manufacture. It will have many disadvantages compared to factory devices, but for low-power consumers, such a system will be enough. The most important stage in manufacturing is to make the correct calculation of the winding turns. Their number in a homemade wind generator with magnets will depend on the number of coils. On average, the aggregate power is provided by 1000-1200 revolutions.
If you use a larger wire for winding, then the resistance decreases, and the current strength, on the contrary, increases. But in any case, you need a machine to create coils with a winding. The process is routine and long, so mechanization is indispensable. The winding unit can be manual on the basis of a workbench. It is enough to organize rotating equipment on a metal rod and bring a coil with copper wire to it. The coil itself will be round. The question of its length is more significant, since the elongated structure will provide more direct turns with a large consumption of copper in the sector. Separate sectors for the correct distribution of the winding over the area can be initially marked on paper, after which the same plasticine barriers can be used on the billet of the coil.
In order to increase the strength of a homemade wind generator with your own hands, it is recommended to apply fiberglass to the bottom of the mold. So that it does not stick to the surface, it is desirable to treat the back side with wax or petroleum jelly. In a starter system, a group of coils is assembled without direct contacts. Each element must have a secure fit, and the ends of the phases are brought out with multilayer insulation. Several wires can be combined into one shape - a star or a triangle.
Installing the generator on the frame
The assembled power unit must be designed for certain electrical loads, but do not forget about external mechanical stress. In order for the structure to bear dynamic and statistical pressure, the generator shaft must be securely fixed in the bed. To do this, use a metal frame suitable for a makeshift wind generator in shape and size. In extreme cases, damping materials can be used that clamp the installation in the housing. Too heavy frames are also undesirable. The best option is an aluminum bed 1-2 cm thick.
Strong wind protection
In normal mode, the wind turbine functions and stably generates current at a wind speed of about 10 m / s. Exceeding this indicator will be harmful both for the supporting structure and for the electrical equipment filling. Therefore, the installation is protected by a side vane system. For example, homemade vertical wind generators are protected from hurricanes with the help of panels that give spring force. In this design, the generator will work in the direction of flow with the tail, that is, the function of the system is limited by mechanics, but without excessive loads from air currents.
Mast for wind generator
The central and main supporting component of the installation, on which the mechanical reliability of the whole complex depends. As this rod, profile angles, pipes and poles can be used. A metal pipe with a diameter of 10 cm is more practical and convenient in installation. As for the length, it must be borne in mind that the optimal position of the generator above the ground is 4-5 m. Industrial plants are mounted at a higher height, but for a reliable installation with such parameters additional equipment will be required. In this case, on the principle of screw piles, it is possible to install a home-made wind generator on a pipe with a depth of 1-1.5 m deep in the ground. In choosing a position point, it should be noted that no interference should be at the same level in a radius of 30 m. In extreme cases, you will have to raise the working structure 1 m above the barrier.
In advance, you can calculate and devices for lowering and lifting. Still, you can’t do without service events, and the stand of an ordinary staircase is not the most reliable solution. In addition, designers recommend installing safety extensions with indentations of 5 m in height of the mast. They are attached to the ground using anchor joints in a radius that is half the height of the column.
Generator sets powered by natural energy sources still do not have mass distribution due to the high cost of basic equipment and considerable maintenance costs. In this case, the most expensive can be a homemade wind generator from an induction motor, which will require a powerful power base and regular technical support. On the other hand, it also has the highest productivity (efficiency of about 80%), which will make it possible to recoup the costs of installation and related materials. How much energy is enough from a battery connected to such a generator? As practice shows, the minimum energy threshold of a system with a return of 2-3 kW allows you to meet the needs of climate systems, household groups of lighting devices, refrigeration equipment, etc.