The refrigerator is an indispensable unit that is in every home. And its most important component is the compressor. If it breaks, the unit stops working, and only repairs can help. If the model of the device in the old-style house has been used for more than a dozen years, then almost any owner already knows the causes of the malfunctions, how to solve them, and even how to check the efficiency of the refrigerator compressor yourself. As for the repair of new devices, it can also be carried out without the help of a master, having certain knowledge. It is only necessary to understand how the principle of operation of the refrigerator is arranged , the functions of its component parts and devices.
Due to what does the device work and what place does the compressor occupy in it?
Cooling in the refrigerator occurs due to freon (a substance that can change from a liquid to a gaseous state). In modern devices, refrigerants are used, which, with the integrity of the design of the device, do not harm others.
In order to maintain a normal working state of the device, freon moves through the system: condenser - filter-drier - capillary pipe - evaporator. The main place in this system is occupied by a motor-compressor, which is the main unit in any such device. He is responsible for the circulation of refrigerant through the piping system of the refrigeration unit. It is worth noting that the modern device can be equipped with either one or two motors - for the refrigerator and freezer compartment.
Since this device, without which the device cannot work properly, you need to know how to check the compressor of the refrigerator if it stops working. The most common causes of breakdowns, especially with newer models, are minor. Having determined the malfunction correctly, you can make an independent repair without calling the mater.
How is the compressor arranged?
Its components are:
• An electric motor endowed with pistons and a valve system.
• The winding is internal.
• Start relay.
• Winding relay.
The AC electric compressor works. It has three outputs located in the shape of a triangle, which are connected in a relay. This device is responsible for starting the engine.
For what reason does the motor not turn on?
The reasons can be various:
• The start relay is out of order.
• Engine burned out.
• Rupture of the network cable.
How to check the start-up relay?
Often, a device breakdown occurs precisely due to a malfunction of this device. Therefore, knowing how to check the compressor relay of a refrigerator, you can easily repair the device yourself. The system is simple. There is a temperature sensor in the refrigerator’s chamber, as soon as the temperature in the chamber begins to rise, it sends a signal to the relay, which, in turn, starts the engine. As a rule, if there is a malfunction in this device, then the device turns on for a few seconds, and then turns off.
Fridge Engine Diagnostics
As soon as the refrigerator has stopped working, the first thing to do is check the network connection. If the diagnosis indicates the serviceability of the cable, then, most likely, the motor itself needs repair. How to check the health of the refrigerator compressor? First of all, we examine the terminals, which should be in proper form.
Check the voltage in the network, if its quality is good, then it can not cause a malfunction. Further, all manipulations with the unit are carried out only when it is disconnected from the power supply. Only after shutdown we begin to diagnose the compressor, for this you need:
• Remove the motor, for this we remove the casing and disconnect the relay.
• Check the windings on the compressor for continuity. Before starting this diagnosis, you need to disconnect all the flexible wires and terminals.
• Check the resistance using the device (tester). To do this, you need to know how to check the compressor of the refrigerator correctly. First we close the contacts left and top, the indicator should be - 20 Ohms, then the upper right - indicator 15 Ohms, after the left and right - indicator 30 Ohms. This is the data of a fully working compressor. If the indicators differ from the norm, the device is faulty.
• Resistance must be checked between methodological contacts with the casing. In this case, with a serviceable engine, the device will show a break in the network if there are values on the device, that is, problems in the compressor. In this situation, we can assume that one of the two motor windings is closed. This fault is fixed by rewinding. Only professionals can do it in the service center.
How to check the refrigerator compressor with a multimeter and a manometer?
These are universal measuring instruments. A manometer is a device with which you can check the compressor. A pressure gauge hose is connected to the discharge fitting and pressure is measured while the compressor is running. The engine is serviceable if a pressure of 6 atmospheres is pumped.
In a situation where the engine is working, but the refrigerator itself does not freeze, the cause may be a gas leak (freon). This can happen with mechanical damage to the system. Unfortunately, this malfunction cannot be checked independently; a specialist is needed.
An independent check should be carried out only after the breakdown diagnosis has been carried out. In refrigerators of the old model, the internal winding of the compressor can output voltage to the refrigerator block-case, and serious injury from electric shock can be obtained.
In order to be sure of safety, you need to measure the voltage between each of the existing contacts and the housing. It is worth noting that the correct indicators will only be on the spot in the case where there is no paint. If the case is completely painted over. Paint must be cleaned.
If the multimeter shows infinity when checking the resistance, then the engine is working. In the case when the device has a value, you need to be careful, as further verification can be dangerous. In order not to get a serious injury, you need:
- carefully remove the cover that closes the start relay;
- disconnect the relay;
- check resistance.
These are simple tips to help you figure out how to check your refrigerator compressor. If it turns out that the motor is out of order, it can be replaced on its own - it’s easy, just figure out the circuit according to which the unit works and calculate your abilities and capabilities. If in doubt, it is best to contact the service center, as it often happens that the breakdown is small, and after repairing the home master you have to change the heart of the refrigerator.