The operation of industrial facilities is often accompanied by increased loads on the structure. In this regard, technologists are constantly improving the regulatory framework governing the design of construction projects of this type. By the way, in addition to traditional production facilities, such structures include towers for storing materials, tanks, flyovers and other engineering structures. However, the design of industrial buildings has its own characteristics in terms of functional and ergonomic design. Experts also provide opportunities for optimizing the construction with the expectation of improving the energy efficiency of facilities.
General regulatory requirements
In the design process, as a rule, it is required to combine several functional zones in one structure, which will be responsible for the storage of materials and raw materials, the production and execution of technological operations. This solution allows you to optimize spatial capabilities and save free space. Also in the premises is multifunctional equipment that can be used to solve various problems. In addition, industrial building design standards require that, wherever possible, facilities be developed on the modular principle of dimensional coordination. Again, this is a new design approach that allows you to rationally use the space.
Although safety is the main point of the standards, technical and economic requirements in the context of optimal design cannot be ignored. On this basis, the design of industrial buildings with increased energy efficiency indicators is based.
Industrial facilities make high demands not only on the technical part. Construction using reinforced supporting structures is a prerequisite for the implementation of such projects. However, to ensure the safety of the people who service the industrial facility, different factors must be taken into account. In particular, the standards require compliance with optimal microclimatic and sanitary-epidemiological conditions in workrooms.
If the design of industrial buildings is carried out, the activity of which will be associated with the processing of chemically harmful substances, then highly efficient forced ventilation should be provided. The levels of hazardous substances should be regularly monitored during the operation of such buildings. In addition to ventilation systems, engineering installations with automatic or manual control of air supply can also be used. The same applies to the temperature parameters of the microclimate, which should be regulated by appropriate devices.
The area of the structure should be determined jointly taking into account all the premises, including technical, aboveground, basement and basement. Depending on the purpose of the facility, special passages should be provided for servicing communications. Industrial buildings are very demanding on infrastructure equipment, so access to them should be as free as possible, but at the same time, engineering networks should be hidden in special niches. In this regard, the design of residential, industrial buildings, as well as production halls is the same and focuses on the criteria of availability and reliability.
Do not forget about the criteria for energy efficiency. The rational distribution of electrical communications, for example, will save a considerable amount in the cost of maintaining the building. Above suspended ceilings, it should also be possible to install sites for auxiliary maintenance of conveyors, crane tracks, lighting devices and monorails.
First of all, the development of a design and planning solution should be carried out with the focus on minimizing the risk of injury. That is, the processes of movement, the implementation of work activities, the use of mobile machinery and equipment should be as safe as possible. To achieve this kind of safety, building structures should be made of high-strength materials, the load-bearing capabilities of which correspond to the loads of the building. The requirements for stability of materials with respect to progressive caving must also be taken into account.
Bearing elements and the base of the building during construction should be provided with sufficient strength and for operation under high loads, which are allowed by the technical standards of SNiP documents. The design of industrial buildings in this part involves not only the calculation of the effects of loads from its own mass. Depending on local climatic conditions, wind and snow loads are also taken into account.
In view of the specifics of the operation of most industrial buildings, the work on providing communal engineering infrastructure most often focuses not on laying networks, but on the technical implementation of the conditions for carrying out such activities. To simplify installation activities, the design of industrial buildings initially involves the inclusion of special technological openings for the implementation of heating, water supply and electrical circuits. The type of arrangement of residential premises also includes raised floors and suspended ceiling niches. On the one hand, such a solution facilitates installation operations, and on the other hand, during operation, it provides easy access to communications services.
Features of the design of multi-story buildings
In the projects of multi-story buildings with a height of at least 15 m from the ground, passenger elevators are provided. Places for integration of the corresponding channels, as well as their infrastructure support, are thought out in advance. In some cases, the design of industrial buildings and structures does not do without the calculation of freight elevators. The quantity and carrying capacity of lifting equipment is calculated depending on the freight and passenger flows. For example, one elevator is enough to service a shift of 30 workers, provided that the building has a height of about 15 m.
Design features of warehouse facilities
The complexity of designing warehouse facilities is usually associated with the specifics of storage of certain goods and materials. For example, the premises in which it is planned to contain food products should have fences without sharp ribs. At the same time, the material for the manufacture of such barriers should be strong enough so that mice do not gnaw it. Ventilation systems with adjustable channel openings are also provided - this is a necessary condition if goods with different requirements for microclimate and access to the air are stored. As a rule, the design of civil industrial buildings for the production and storage of food products is carried out with the expectation of special requirements for finishing materials. For example, floor coverings cannot be formed from decks containing tar mastics and other environmentally harmful components.
Design of loading and unloading structures
Bundles of production and storage facilities are a common solution in industrial complexes. However, for the effective operation of such structures, the integration of appropriate handling equipment is required. Such functions are performed by lifting platforms and ramps, which are designed taking into account the requirements for the general safety of personnel and the protection of goods from mechanical damage. Dimensional parameters of units are determined on the basis of data on the turnover of a particular enterprise.
In addition, the design of industrial buildings and enterprises in terms of providing loading and unloading structures must take into account fire safety requirements. This is especially true for lifts that are directly adjacent to buildings and technological equipment. Such designs should initially be developed using non-combustible and heat-resistant materials.
The quality of design work depends, first of all, on the conscientiousness of the performers. The regulatory framework provides enough information so that the contractor can implement an effective design solution in every sense. Therefore, the customer should focus on organizations that have sufficient experience in such activities. In Russia, these include the construction companies AZNH Group, NEOKA and Central Research Institute. Designing of residential and industrial buildings, these organizations perform using modern urban planning techniques. In particular, engineers with designers at the stage of preparing the basic solution are guided by the possibility of using innovative building materials. Also, in the process of work, advanced geographic information systems are involved, allowing high-quality comprehensive analyzes of territories to further determine operational conditions.