A person needs to drink at least 1.5 liters of water per day. At the same time, it should be clean, not include impurities. How to check water at home? Popular methods are presented in the article.
It is necessary to regularly check the quality of water, as this directly affects the state of human health. According SanPiN 188.8.131.524-01 the following indicators are established:
- The activity of hydrogen is 6–9 units. pH
- Mineralization - 1000 mg / l.
- Hardness - not more than 7.0 mEq / L.
- Nitrates - not higher than 45 mg / dm 3 , iron - up to 0.30, manganese - up to 0.10, surfactants - not more than 0.50.
- The phenolic index is 0.25 mg / L.
These are just some of the standards that should be considered when checking water quality. Their total number is up to 1000 standards. It is on them that specialists in laboratories are guided.
The danger of tap water
Tap is called water that comes from a faucet. It is delivered to housing through water pipes. Water supply has been actively developing in large cities of Russia since the end of the 19th century. Typically, fluid comes from river water intakes. Then it is subjected to several stages of purification: mechanical filtration and using sand. Next, disinfection is performed.
Only after this, water is piped. It collects dirt accumulating in the pipeline. Russian pipes have long been in need of major repairs; they must be replaced. Insufficiently purified water negatively affects human health. Because of her, there are such health problems:
- The risk of oncology is increasing.
- It has a negative effect on the work of the heart and blood vessels.
- Urolithiasis may appear.
- Itching, peeling, allergy appears.
How to determine the quality of the fluid flowing from the tap? A reliable method is considered a laboratory test. For this, sampling is necessary. But there are also home methods, which will be described later.
Using organoleptic indicators, you can determine whether water is suitable for drinking. The analysis will be carried out using the senses - vision and smell:
- The liquid must be collected in a transparent glass and look at its color. The reference is a colorless liquid. If she has a color (bluish, greenish, tan), this means the presence of a chemical component. Sediment should be absent. You should look at the turbidity. Water from the well and spring is unclear because it includes salts and iron. But tap water should be clear.
- Water should not have a smell. If it has a hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, ammonia smell, then it can not be used for drinking. Swampy, putrid, grassy odors are not allowed.
- If the first stages of the organoleptic analysis of water at home did not show deviations from the norm, you can proceed with further research. You need to taste the water. She should not have a taste. If it is, then organic or inorganic components are present in it. Brackishness comes from dissolved salts, a metallic taste gives the liquid iron, acidity - acid. Clean water has a refreshing taste.
These are all organoleptic indicators by which the analysis can be performed independently. So you can check the fluid from any source.
Using a mirror
Water analysis at home can be performed in another effective way. A clean mirror or glass is required. A drop of water is applied to it. The surface should dry.
Then you need to evaluate the result. If the mirror is perfectly clean, then the water was free of impurities and salts. If there are stains and traces, then the water is not suitable for drinking.
An analysis of water at home can be done using boiling. It is necessary to take a clean pan, pour water into it, put on the stove and boil. Let the liquid boil for 10-15 minutes. Then it must be drained and inspect the walls of the tank. If there is a light yellow precipitate, then this is evidence of the presence of calcium salts. When water contains a lot of iron oxide, the precipitate turns dark gray.
You can check tap water for hardness. It is necessary to wash your hands or boil the kettle: if the soap under the stream does not foam well, and a lot of scale immediately appears in the kettle, then the water is hard. You can still boil the kettle and brew strong black tea. Then, raw water is added to the drink. If it became peachy, then the liquid is clean, and if it is cloudy, then the quality of the water is low.
At home, water analysis is carried out using another simple method. In the bottle you need to collect a clear liquid, close the lid and hide for several days in a dark place. Then you can evaluate the result. The tank should not have sediment or plaque on the walls. It is important that there is no film on the surface. If at least one sign has arisen, then the water quality is low.
The use of potassium permanganate
Perform a water analysis at home will be obtained using potassium permanganate. You will need liquid from a tap (100 ml), in which a little potassium permanganate is diluted. You need to pour a little water into another glass, the quality of which you want to check. Next, you need to mix the liquids, observing the reaction. If the water instead of pink turned yellow, then you should not drink it.
If at home there are Unionidae mollusks in the aquarium, then they will be able to perform a quality control of drinking water with them. If they close the sink when they are in such a liquid, then there are impurities in it.
All home methods provide an approximate result. You can get accurate data in a special laboratory. They will carry out the required analyzes and provide information on them.
For express analysis, there are kits and devices for determining water quality. Usually they are compact and easily fit in a backpack. In ph-testers for water there are litmus papers that are impregnated with special compounds. When placed in water, they react with a certain type of chemical element, as a result of which the paper changes color. On this basis, it will be possible to determine the presence and quantity of certain components.
There are kits where bottles with chemical reagents are present. To get the results, you need to draw water into the container, add the reagent and observe the reaction, which manifests itself in a change in the color of water, consistency. After this procedure, you can not drink this water.
The following sets are used for analysis:
- "Natural waters." Detects and determines the amount of salts, the presence of chlorine and acidity.
- "Spring". The kit allows you to check for nitrites and nitrates. Even with it, the level of iron and the amount of manganese are revealed.
- "Well". Used to determine the amount of iron and aluminum impurities. Establishes the presence of certain types of nitrates.
- "Well". This kit is universal, as it allows you to install all of the above elements and fluorides in groundwater.
All sets are used for independent determination of water quality. They have instructions for use.
It is important that the fluid complies with SanPiN 184.108.40.2064-01. It is on them that water quality control is carried out. Supervisory authorities should regularly take samples, carry out checks. But you can independently contact special services for additional research.
Where is the water tested?
Now there are many institutions that carry out this work. The test fluid must comply with GOST. For examination, you can send not only drinking water, but also waste, technical, mineral, purified. For each species apply their own standards.
Verification is possible in such institutions:
- Water utility laboratories.
- Laboratories of sanitary and epidemiological stations.
- Independent private laboratories.
It is required to check the organization for accreditation and license, otherwise there is no guarantee of the quality of work. If problems arise, such a water test will not have legal force. You also need to check the modernity of laboratory equipment.
After the verification procedure, a protocol or act is provided where all the indicators found are indicated. The document includes data on the composition of the liquid, the concentration of the components, conclusions on suitability and tips. If the results are not satisfactory, you can visit another laboratory.
In order for the test to be of high quality, you need to take the sample correctly. If identification of harmful components is required, it is advisable to call a laboratory employee. If you do it yourself, then you need to follow simple rules:
- The sample container for bacterial analysis should be taken in the laboratory. If this is done independently, then you need to take a bottle of plain water. It is important that it is glass, clean.
- The liquid should drain for 5-10 minutes, and then it can be typed.
- The bottle and cork should be washed several times with the water that is taken for analysis.
- The liquid must be poured neatly along the wall of the container. This is required so that oxygen bubbles in the water do not appear, which lead to oxidation. This fact affects the test results.
- The bottle must be filled completely. It is important that there is less air in it.
- It is best to immediately send the sample to the laboratory. If the liquid is in the bottle for a long time, then its composition changes, since different chemical reactions are observed. When this is not possible, the container must be refrigerated.
A sample requires at least 1.5 liters, but you will be able to find out exactly this information in the laboratory. Each check may require a certain amount. Some examinations recommend taking a sample of water only in a glass or plastic bottle. If you follow these rules, then the check will give an accurate result.
Water analysis should be performed in the laboratory. But to learn its quality will work at home. All methods indicated in the article are effective and safe.