Murmansk region is a unique corner with peculiar vegetation, atypical periods of the seasons. The climate of the Murmansk region has no analogues; it is incomparable even with those regions that are located in similar latitudes. This is due to the geographical location of the region. Despite the harsh weather conditions, there are interesting places, amazing flora and fauna, as well as unique natural phenomena.
The climate features of the Murmansk region, briefly, can be explained in such a way that it is largely due to the situation in the region. A significant part of the region is located on the Kola Peninsula, capturing from the western and southwestern parts of the adjacent territory of the mainland. The total area of the northern region is 144.9 square kilometers. On three sides (north, south, east) this territory is washed by the Barents and White Seas.
In the south, the region borders on Karelia. On its territory there are five districts, several cities and seven closed territorial entities, the movement of which is carried out in accordance with the access system. The region also borders with Finland and Norway.
Since most of the territory is outside the Arctic Circle, the climate there is subarctic. The climate of the Murmansk region has a number of features. It is distinguished by a long winter, heavy rainfall, and atypical seasons. But, despite the long winter and a short period of heat, the earth manages to thaw. Therefore, widespread permafrost is not characteristic of this area, despite the fact that the territory is located beyond the Arctic Circle. Permafrost is found in separate pieces, accounting for about 15 percent of the total area.
Weather features on the Kola Peninsula
Despite the fact that the region is located in the northern latitudes, the climate of the Murmansk region is characterized by a certain mildness. A large amount of precipitation falls here, throughout the year it is quite humid.
The proximity of the Atlantic Ocean has a dominant influence on the weather. Warm and at the same time humid air from the Atlantic Ocean softens the climate, making winter not so harsh.
Murmansk region: climate type
Weather conditions are also influenced by cold air masses coming from the Arctic. This air brings with it cold, dry winds. The average wind speed on the coast reaches 8 meters per second. And up to 5 meters per second in the depths of the Kola Peninsula.
Thus, low temperatures, strong winds from the Arctic in combination with the humid air of the Atlantic lead to the fact that the cold is much harder to carry. This combination enhances the feeling of frost.
The climate of the Murmansk region is similar to the subarctic climate. Moreover, the average annual temperature ranges from 0 ° C on the coast of the Barents Sea to -2 ° C near the White Sea. Inland, the temperature drops even more and is in the range of -4 ° and -5 ° .
Relief and its impact on climate uniqueness
The region has a diverse landscape: mountains and plains, marshy lowlands and numerous lakes and rivers.
In the central part are the Khibiny Mountains, which are the highest on the Kola Peninsula. And also on the territory of the federation these are the highest mountain ranges in comparison with those territories that are beyond the Arctic Circle. This is one of the favorite places for guests of the region.
A little to the west lay low mountains: the Wolfs, the Greasy tundra, Chuna and others. Their height does not exceed thousands of meters. Numerous tectonic faults include lakes and rivers with clear and clear water. This water is mostly weakly mineralized; valuable fish species are found in it.
A significant territory is still flat. To the south are swamps. The abundance of water also adds moisture.
The influence of the Barents Sea on the weather
The Barents Sea has a significant impact on the climate of the Murmansk region. This sea does not freeze even in winter. Thanks to the warm Gulf Stream, there is high humidity, frequent fogs, cloud cover and storms. Warm currents warm the Kola Peninsula from the north, to some extent neutralizing the influence of the Arctic Ocean. The warm air coming from the sea makes the winter relatively warm, therefore, despite the fact that it lasts about six months here, there are no severe frosts. Again, in comparison with similar territories located in the northern latitudes.
The coldest month is February. This is due to the fact that the Arctic Ocean at this time is cooled as much as possible and the effect of Arctic cold during this period is maximum. At this time, on the coast, frost can reach temperatures up to - 40 ° C. The farther from the coast, the colder it gets. And on the flat part frosts can reach -50 ° .
Also, the climate characteristic of the Murmansk region contains such indicators:
- relatively warm winter;
- frosts are common in summer;
- numerous precipitation, with an annual total of 500 millimeters in the flat terrain and up to 1200 millimeters in the mountains;
- frequent weather changes due to the influence of the Atlantic cyclones and Arctic winds: thaws are not uncommon in winter and snowfalls in summer.
The temperature on the coast is significantly different from the rest of the territory. As well as the climate on the plains and in the mountains. It gets colder as it goes deeper into the continent.
Sights of the region
The rich natural landscapes, mountains, interspersed with plains, northern lakes and rivers, all this attracts many tourists. There is something to see and do.
So, in the vicinity of Lake Bolshoy Vudyavr, the city of Kirovsk is located, which is a famous ski resort in the north of Russia. The city, surrounded on three sides by the Khibiny Mountains, has a developed infrastructure for winter sports. Kirovsk, Murmansk region, the climate is moderately cold, also with a large amount of precipitation, the peak of which falls in June. The least rainfall is observed in February.
In general, weather conditions favor the development of skiing, kayaking on mountain rivers, extreme skiing in non-run-in places. These tracks are suitable for both beginners and experienced athletes, as there are slopes of different difficulty levels.
The climate of the Murmansk region favors the development of such a popular form of recreation as fishing. Rare breeds of northern fish such as grayling, trout and trout are found in abundance in local lakes.
The most beautiful time of the year
It is believed that the most beautiful sometimes of the area is the beginning of autumn. When it is still relatively warm, the tundra is filled with a variety of plants. For some, this is still a flowering period, others bear fruit, the leaves begin to turn yellow on the trees. Such a rich color scheme makes the area unique. This period can help in creating a unique photo shoot for tourists.
Mostly this picture can be observed in September. However, such a riot of colors does not last long. And by October, frost can destroy some of the beauty.
The polar night begins here from the end of November and lasts until mid-January. During this period, the sun does not appear in the sky at all, the region plunges into pitch darkness. This is somewhat depressing for the population.
On the twentieth of May, a polar day begins when the sun does not descend from the horizon. This continues until July 22.
Despite the long winters, polar nights, all this does not affect animals that have adapted to life in these latitudes.
One of the most beautiful phenomena in the region is the flashes of aurora. They are especially clearly visible in the dark, when the sky is illuminated by the glow of green, blue, yellow and reddish hues.
Climatic features, frequent change of weather, long winters and short summers made this region unique. Many films are often shot here, these places are loved by athletes, tourists and fishing enthusiasts.