Is otitis media contagious or not? Since the so-called acute or chronic inflammation in different parts of the ear, then no. This is not a virus so that it can be infected. However, the disease is serious, and therefore now it is necessary to talk about what are the prerequisites for its occurrence, what causes inflammation, and how to treat it in general.
This condition, like any other ailment, has a certain classification. Having dealt with the question of whether otitis media is contagious or not, you can pay attention to the study of its species.
An ailment of this type is manifested by inflammation of the outer ear of a limited or diffuse nature. A typical symptom is a boil. Infiltration is obvious, severe pain is also felt. The opening of a boil can be fraught with the development of furunculosis.
External otitis media (code according to ICD-10 - H60) is of two types:
- Limited. It begins with a sensation of severe itching, growing into pain. It radiates to the jaw, nape, temple. When chewing, sensations intensify. Sleep is disturbed. Infiltration often reaches a significant amount.
- Diffuse. It starts with a bursting sensation, fever and itching. Pain arises quickly, radiating to the entire half of the head. Such otitis media can lead not only to sleep disturbance, but also to anorexia. Regional lymph nodes also increase.
Otitis is infected or not - it is clear, but what is the reason for its appearance? Well, you need to tell about this separately.
External otitis media occurs as a result of infection in the external auditory canal. If it is mechanically or chemically damaged, the pathogen will be in the body.
Many people, knowing about this, therefore ask themselves the question "is otitis media contagious or not." But because the answer is twofold: no, because this inflammation is only a possible consequence of the penetration of pyogenic staphylococcus into the body. And yes, since they “cling” to it, as a rule, from a bacterium carrier - the one in whose body it already exists. Moreover, he, by the way, may not be ill himself.
External diffuse otitis media, for example, causes Klebsiella, hemophilic and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, moraxella, Candida fungi, pneumococci, etc.
To develop the disease, the ear must be damaged. Also, a provoking factor is a reduced barrier function of the skin and reduced immunity. Not all carriers of bacteria suffer from otitis media due to the fact that the protective forces of their organisms are strong - the pathogen simply does not have conditions for progression.
Limited otitis media
Each form should be described in detail. The symptoms of otitis media and the causes of diseases have already been said, what about treatment?
After a diagnosis, including an examination by the otolaryngologist and otoscopy, an autopsy of the boil is usually prescribed. After this operation, all the pus from the ear flows out, and the pain syndrome decreases sharply. The procedure is very serious, as there is a risk of provoking contamination of the remaining hair follicles, concentrated in the ear canal. What is this fraught with? The formation of a huge number of boils, which leads to furunculosis.
But while the infiltration stage is observed, the affected area is only treated with silver nitrate, and the inside with an antibacterial ointment. Instillation of antibiotics (Ofloxacin, Neomycin, etc.) is also indicated. Reception of analgesics and anti-inflammatory allows to get rid of pain.
Diffuse otitis media
And about this form you need to talk a little more. Is otitis media of this form transmitted? Also not (only bacteria that provoke it). An ailment of this type is often fraught with hearing loss, and is also accompanied by discharge from the ear. Therefore, it is called purulent otitis media. In adults and children, the disease is quite common.
The acute period lasts 2-3 weeks. Then the symptoms subside, the patient recovers. However, sometimes the disease takes on a chronic form. The consequences are scars that reduce the lumen of the ear canal.
Diagnostic measures also carry out additional studies to differentiate the disease with acute eczema and erysipelas.
Therapy involves the systemic use of antihistamines and multivitamin preparations, as well as antibiotics. If the doctor considers it necessary, he prescribes immunocorrective treatment.
The ear canal is also treated with Burov liquid, yellow mercury ointment, hormonal and antibacterial ointments, and antibiotic drops. If a lot of pus is secreted, the ear is washed with special solutions.
In this case, inflammation develops in the middle ear. This is the space that lies between the eardrum and the inner ear.
The reason for the development of otitis media (ICD-10 code is H65) is due to infection. In 65% of cases, the causative agent is streptococcal infection. Also, staphylococci and pneumococci can provoke an ailment. Much less often - mushrooms, Proteus and diphtheria bacillus.
With weakened immunity, infectious agents penetrate through the Eustachian tube into the tympanic cavity. A provoking factor can be laryngitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, ozena, tonsillitis, tonsillitis, various tumors, previously performed surgical interventions, etc.
The disease develops in three stages - preperforation, perforation and reparative. Each manifests its own symptoms. But it usually begins with severe, sudden pain in the ear, decreased appetite, the appearance of noise and stuffiness, and also hearing impairment. The temperature also rises, chills, general weakness, weakness and fatigue occur.
Diagnosis and treatment
Talking about whether otitis media is contagious to others, what are the causes of its occurrence and how it manifests itself, it is necessary to tell about the principles of the examination. Patient complaints are sufficient to establish a diagnosis. Otitis media develops quickly, suddenly and is manifested by specific symptoms.
But it is also necessary to conduct otoscopy and myrotoscopy. After conducting clinical tests, an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and moderate leukocytosis are detected.
This disease is treated on an outpatient basis. If complications arise, the patient is hospitalized. To stop the pain, ear drops with anesthetics are used. After this, it is advisable to close the ear canal with Vaseline lubricated cotton wool.
Puffiness is well removed by antihistamines and vasoconstrictor drops - "Xylometazoline", "Tetrizolin", "Nafazolin", "Oxymethazoline".
For the purpose of general therapy, the use of Ibufen or Diclofenac is prescribed. Antibiotics are indicated for temperature and severe pain. Well helps "Cefruxin", "Spiramycin" and "Amoxicillin."
It should tell a little about exudative otitis media in a child. This is a chronic ailment that most often affects children aged 2 to 5 years. Lasts over 8 weeks.
The reason is obstruction of the Eustachian tube. Diseases lead to this ailment, because of which the outflow of secretion from the nose is disturbed. This can be sinusitis, scleroma, adenoiditis, trauma, allergic rhinitis, swelling of the pharynx, acute respiratory viral infection, laryngitis, tonsillitis, tonsillitis, aerootitis, etc.
Symptoms are usually the same as those of otitis media. Contagious or not for those around this ailment? By no means, moreover, in young children it is even asymptomatic. Parents notice an illness when they understand that the baby’s hearing has worsened (he asks to increase the volume of the cartoon, does not hear the call, etc.). The absence of complaints significantly complicates the diagnosis.
Complications, diagnosis and therapy
If you do not start treating exudative disease in time, then it can lead to adhesive otitis media. This is fraught with perforation of the eardrum, mastoiditis, cholesteatoma. And if otitis media occurs in a very young child, the development of speech function may be impaired. Delay in psycho-emotional development is not ruled out.
It is sometimes recommended to be examined by an otolaryngologist, because the course is asymptomatic, and later detection leads to serious consequences. Diagnosis involves otoscopy, a study of patency of the auditory tube and hearing, as well as microotoscopy.
The treatment is aimed at eliminating disorders that interfere with the patency of the Eustachian tube. It is also important to eliminate inflammation, restore hearing and prevent sclerotic changes. If opportunities are missed or conservative therapy has not yielded results, surgical treatment is indicated.
Also has a viral or bacterial nature. It is usually a complication of meningitis or otitis media.
A characteristic symptom is a sudden attack of dizziness, which occurs 1-2 weeks after the onset of infection. Sometimes it is accompanied by vomiting or nausea.
The disease is serious, and it is important to differentiate it from those diseases that affect the brain. To exclude the likelihood of a stroke or tumor, CT and MRI are performed. Electronistagmography and audiometry may be prescribed.
Nausea and vomiting are eliminated with Metoclopramide and antihistamines. The best drugs are Diphenhydramine, Chloroliramine, and Mebhydrolin.
Scopolamine patches are also used. Inflammation can be reduced with the help of steroids ("Methylprednisolone"), as well as sedatives ("Diazepam" and "Lorazepam").