A private house or a country cottage should be provided with water. Without moisture, crop plants cannot bear fruit. The well, which is often equipped independently, can become a very real possibility of obtaining water.
There is no need to use heavy drilling equipment for this. Today, there are several drilling methods, each of which is simple to implement and does not involve the use of expensive equipment. You will not have to make significant efforts either.
What type of well to choose
If you want to drill a well with your own hands, then first you need to understand the varieties of this water source. It can be represented by a well, which, in the presence of a spring, quickly fills up and becomes an excellent store for up to 2 cubic meters. A well can be a filter well. It is located in the sand and is a 100 mm pipe. It is immersed 30 m in depth using a screw. A stainless mesh filter is fixed on the deepened end of the pipe. The depth of the well can vary from 10 to 50 m. Such a water source can be operated from 5 years or more.
Do-it-yourself artesian well can also be equipped with you. It does not have filters, but is designed to extract water from the layers of porous limestone. You can deepen the artesian well by 20-100 m. This water source can be operated for about half a century. The exact depth of the well cannot be determined in advance. Tentatively, this parameter will be the same as that of similar wells in neighboring sections. Deviation is possible due to uneven occurrence of soil layers. It is necessary to buy casing pipes taking into account the parameters of available water supply sources. However, a slight adjustment may be required.
Using a manual drilling method
Before you make a well with your own hands, you need to figure out which technology is right for you. The technique may involve the use of a hand drill. Additionally, you should take care of the availability of:
- drill rig;
- casing pipe;
When digging a deep well, you need a drill tower. This design provides the movement of the drill with rods. If the well is shallow, then you can manually remove the drill string without using a tower. Rods can be made of pipes that are connected by a thread or a key.
The lower bar is equipped with a drill. Cutting nozzles are cut from 3 mm sheet metal. When sharpening their edges, it must be borne in mind that when the drill rotates, they must cut into the ground clockwise. When a well is being drilled with its own hands, the rig must be installed above the drilling site. Its height should be greater than the corresponding parameter of the drill rod. This will facilitate work when lifting and removing the boom.
The guide recess for the drill is dug up on two bayonet shovels. The first turns of rotation can be performed independently, however, as you immerse the pipe, you will need help. If the drill fails to be removed the first time, then it should be turned counterclockwise and try again. As the drill deepens, the rotation of the pipe will become more difficult. Manipulation can be facilitated by softening the soil with water. As the drill moves down every 0.5 m, the drill structure is pulled to the surface and freed from the soil. The drilling cycle must be repeated again.
When the tool handle is flush with the ground, the structure must be extended with a knee. When a well is drilled into water with its own hands, it will take a lot of time to lift and clean the equipment. It is important to use the design capabilities as efficiently as possible. You should take out the largest possible portion of the soil layer to the surface. Drilling must be continued until it can enter the aquifer. This can be determined by the state of the excavated soil. Passing this stage, you will notice that the drill sinks deeper. It must reach the catchment layer that follows the aquifer.
Diving will ensure maximum flow of water to the source. Manual drilling can only be used to dive to the first aquifer. Depth does not exceed 20 m. For pumping dirty water, you can use a hand pump or submersible type equipment. After about 3 buckets of dirty water, the aquifer will be washed. The appearance of pure water will indicate this. If this did not happen, then the well must be tried to be deepened by another 2 m. The well can be drilled with water using a hydraulic pump and a conventional drill.
The use of technology of shock drilling
The essence of the method is how to make a well yourself using a driven glass. This heavy tool falls from a tower height. For work, you will need a drilling rig and a tool for the shock-rope method. It is also required to prepare a device for extracting soil. The tower looks like a tripod and can be made of metal pipes, as well as wooden logs. The dimensions of the structures are proportional to the parameters of the downhole tool.
Do-it-yourself drilling of a well is carried out according to the following principle: a driven glass is lowered alternately and breaks the rock, and then captures it. For the installation device, you can use a steel pipe. Its end is equipped with a cutting tool. The working edge, which outwardly resembles a half turn of the screw, will be in contact with the face. At 0.5 m from the edge in the metal pipe there should be a hole through which the extracted soil can be extracted. The drill glass will thus be emptied. A cable is fixed to its upper part, with the help of which the glass will be lowered and the contents extracted to the surface. As the structure deepens, the glass will be freed from the ground. This happens every 0.5 m.
Casing Installation Recommendations
Do-it-yourself drilling can be accompanied by the installation of casing pipes. They can be represented as whole asbestos cement products or in separate segments. In the latter case, special attention is paid to the same diameter in order to ensure the further immersion of the entire structure. The pipe links are kept from slipping and are fixed with brackets that hide under the strips of stainless steel.
When arranging a well for water with its own hands, pipe casing is carried out in order to exclude wall shedding, to prevent clogging of the water source during operation, and also to block the upper aquifers, because they contain poor water. A pipe with a filter is lowered to the bottom of the well, which is made of a fine mesh. It will trap grains of sand and provide filtration.
The pipe lowers to the desired depth and is fixed with a clamp. This eliminates spontaneous subsidence. If you correctly approach the device of the water source, then the aboveground part of the structure must be protected with a caisson. It is a head that protects the well from contamination. After installing the well with your own hands, after a while you may notice that the pipe was squeezed out of the soil. This process is natural and spontaneous. Additional measures to deepen the product are not required.
Do-it-yourself well completion involves digging a pit or hole. The size should be 150 x 150 cm. In order to prevent the walls from shedding, they must be faced with plywood, pieces of chipboard or boards. Another option is to dig a barrel using a conventional drill. Its diameter can vary from 15 to 20 cm. The depth will be 1 m. This is done in order to keep the pipe in a vertical position more stable.
A tripod is mounted above the recess. It can be wooden or metal. It is also called a derrick. The winch is mounted at the junction of the supports. Quite often there are log towers. A drill string will hang on the tripod. The length of the rods for self-drilling will be 1.5 m. The rods are fastened to one pipe by a thread. This design is used for lifting and lowering equipment.
Do-it-yourself water well drilling involves the preliminary selection of a pump. This will match the diameter of the future well. The pump must pass into the pipe freely. The difference between the diameters should be 5 mm or more. The rod rotates during drilling, at the same time, a chisel hits it from above. Working together is much more convenient. One person will twist with a gas key, and the second will act on the bar from above, punching the rock.
You can simplify the process with a winch. It provides easier lifting and lowering of equipment into the well. When drilling, the rod is marked. Marks will be needed for orientation. Marking will allow you to determine when you need to pull the bar and clean the drill.
If you are thinking about how to make a well with your own hands, you should know that to simplify the work, you can use drills for various purposes. They allow you to overcome different layers of soil. For clay soils, for example, a coil or spiral drill is suitable. If you have to work with solid soils, then a drill bit should be used. A sand spoon is suitable for sandy soil.
The soil rises to the surface with the help of a chipper. The sand layer will be much easier to overcome if water is added during drilling. When the soil is hard, a chisel is used. Such an instrument can be flat or cross. The main purpose of the device is the loosening of hard rocks. Quicksand can be overcome by shock.
A do-it-yourself borehole can also be dug on clay soil. In this case, a bailer and a coil are usually used. A spiral drill perfectly overcomes such soils, because it has a structure that resembles a spiral. The pitch of the spiral is equal to the diameter of the drill. The lower base is equal to the limit of 45 to 85 mm. As for the blade, its diameter reaches 290 mm. On the territory there may also be pebble layers. Quite often they contain gravel. Punching is carried out through the chisel and choke. Additionally, casing pipes are used. Water may be poured into the hole. This often simplifies the task.
Well in the house
If you plan to use the wells in the house, and you are not going to give up water even in winter, then pipe laying in trenches is carried out below the freezing line. Additional insulation will not be superfluous. Street water supply can be made of the following materials:
- metal plastic;
Plastic pipes are better than others, because they are not susceptible to corrosion, and deposits are not formed on their inner walls. Installation of such communications is much easier compared to metal. A well in the house with its own hands is equipped in the form of a system, the continuation of which is water supply. It is carried out through the foundation, which excludes freezing. Connection to the casing is through a caisson or downhole adapter. Together with the pipe, an electric cable is laid through which the pump will be connected. It is closed in a corrugation to exclude contact with soil.
Pump System Addition
When a well is equipped in a private house with its own hands, you must definitely select and connect a pump. This takes into account the depth of the borehole, the height of the water column, the water flow rate, the productivity of the source and the diameter of the casing. Typically, centrifugal or rotary submersible models are used. Another option often becomes a vibration device. But it is better to abandon its use, since it contributes to the destruction of the walls of the well.
To hang equipment in the well, you must use a strong steel cable. If the unit breaks into the casing, getting it will be very problematic. It is advisable to use a winch, it will lower the pump into the casing. It is necessary to connect a check valve to the pump, onto which the coupling is screwed. Next, connect to the water pipe. With plastic clamps to the pipe, an electric cable is fixed every 3 m.
Putting the pump into the well is the next step. With a deviation from the bottom of 2 m, it is necessary to install equipment. The pipe and cable are threaded through the head and secured with clamps. The water supply then connects to the main highway. At the final stage, you can start. If the water went, then everything was done correctly.
When arranging a well, it is important to remember that a submersible pump is a fairly powerful consumer of electricity. In this connection, it is connected via a voltage regulator. When laying engineering systems, it is necessary to take into account the depth of soil freezing. Each region has its own parameter. The system should include a tank with an impressive capacity and a hydraulic accumulator. With a slight slope, the pipeline is laid. The caisson should provide for the possibility of draining water.
In order to ensure a full automatic water supply in the conditions of a summer house or a country house, a well must be drilled at the site. Usually this business is entrusted to specialists. However, you can carry out the work yourself, taking into account the geological structure of the soil and choosing the drilling technology.