For the first time having tasted a variety of any coffee, in the future, when choosing, we focus on our intuition.
People like different kinds. Someone is closer to a mild taste without a harsh aftertaste, and someone appreciates the tart aroma in them.
At first, practically no one understands coffee grades. But having tried different types of this drink, many are trying to understand what’s what.
The most favorite coffee varieties are robusta and arabica. We will consider their differences in more detail.
They have many subspecies. And they are all different in color, taste, smell.
Types and varieties of coffee
The total number of coffee tree varieties is about 80. Among them are undersized and giants.
Grow those that consumers prefer.
Any person chooses what he likes best, in accordance with his taste preferences.
There is a difference between the words “type” and “grade” of coffee. It is wrong to consider Arabica and Robusta as a variety. Since this is a species, each of which has many subcategories.
Varieties of coffee for understanding are obtained by mixing its different types in certain proportions. Due to this, a difference in smell, color and taste is achieved. Scientists involved in breeding, tried to derive the perfect type of coffee for germination and taste. But this, unfortunately, failed. Since the taste was not very good.
Let us describe in more detail the types of coffee Arabica and Robusta. Differences, features of cultivation will be considered below.
This is an arabian coffee tree. Homeland - Ethiopia.
It is considered the most common type of coffee.
Grown in many warm countries. 72% of coffee consumed has a taste of arabica.
This species does not like heat, prefers to grow in the shade and with sufficient humidity, feels good at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
Trees require good care, as they are extremely capricious. It is necessary to fertilize the earth so that they grow normally.
Do not tolerate frost, prefer a temperature of +15.
Subject to all the above conditions, a good harvest is possible. Bloom with white flowers, which are collected in inflorescences.
It takes up to 8.5 months for the fruit to ripen. The structure of the fruit is complex, it has several shells that reliably protect the grain from damage.
Begin to bear fruit in the third or fourth year. The first few years of fruiting is the most delicious coffee.
Factors affecting the taste of coffee:
1. The acidity of the soil.
2. The number of warm days for 1 vegetation and proper watering.
3. The height of the tree.
4. The presence of plant pests.
5. Where did the seeds for growing come from?
For your information: if all the growth factors coincide, 1 tree produces up to 5 kg of fruits, from which 1 kg of coffee beans is obtained. Types of coffee - arabica and robusta. Differences of varieties appear in the form of grains, arabica has a more elongated shape and its larger size. The smell of coffee is thin, sourness is present in the taste. Caffeine in arabica is slightly less than in robusta.
The most common types of coffee are arabica and robusta. The differences in tastes are quite noticeable. Any kind of arabica has a sweetish taste and sourness.
Types of Arabica
This variety contains the following substances: aromatic oils - 19%; caffeine - 1.6%; almost equal proportions contain proteins, fats, carbohydrates. Vitamin PP appears in the roasted grain.
Where do species of arabica grow?
People who love coffee always wonder where it comes from.
Best Bourbon grows in Brazil.
Bourbon Santos is not a cheap variety. It is made only from grains no older than three years.
Maragogype variety grows in Maragogype in South America.
Bali Shinzan is quite actively used in Indian countries. This coffee has the smell of cloves, sweet as persimmon, there is a note of Jamaican pepper.
Typica grows only in the highlands. There are plantations in Ethiopia and Latin America. The crop of this variety is small, so it is very expensive.
Katura is a hybrid grown in the foothills of Brazil. It has a citrus flavor.
Venezuelan Caracas has a rich aroma. It is preferred by many consumers.
The Indian variety Plantation A has the taste of dark chocolate. It smells like a set of exotic spices.
In Latin it sounds like kanefora, a kind of Congolese coffee, usually called in the common people - robusta, translated into Russian - strong.
The plant is not really capricious, unlike its fellow Arabica.
Quite calmly tolerates minor temperature fluctuations, does not succumb to disease, gives a high yield, grows safely where arabica is unable to survive.
Low price, but only 21% of the total world trade is realized. This is the most important difference between the types of coffee described from each other. Congolese coffee trees grow up to 10 m in height. Some species of it are shrubs. These trees grow on the plains and in the foothills, but it is easier to cultivate them on the plains.
The flowers have a bright smell.
The fruits ripen a little longer than arabica, and the yield is higher.
The grains have a rounded shape, collected in pairs, their diameter is 5.6 mm.
Coffee lovers claim that the quality of robusta beans is slightly worse than that of arabica. But still, the aroma and taste of coffee is much richer. This property is very much appreciated in Italian cuisine.
Robusta is usually placed in instant coffee.
Species of this variety
The most famous types are:
1. Ambri. Grown in Angola. The weather here is great for this coffee. The most expensive robusta varieties are from here.
2. Coniglion du Brazil grows in Brazil. It has a taste of strawberries.
3. Qilu. Grown in the Congo. It is not often found on sale, but coffee is excellent. It is used as a part of elite grades. Grains have 9% aromatic oils, caffeine content - 4%. The alkaloid gives a bitter aftertaste. After roasting, bitterness becomes less. Coffee blends with good Robusta grains for making coffee give a lush, strong foam. Grains of arabica and robusta have various sizes.
Arabica and Robusta. Differences. What's better?
So, let's try to briefly describe the differences:
1. Where does robusta and arabica grow? The differences in growth are as follows: arabica was first cultivated in Ethiopia, data about it appeared from the XIV century. Robusta - in Central Africa, in a separate form isolated in the XIX century.
2. The height of the trees of these varieties of coffee is also different. Robusta is not higher than 5.5 m, landed in mountainous terrain. Arabica grows above 12 m. It is grown mainly on the flat terrain.
3. What is the chemical composition of robusta and arabica. Their differences are as follows: arabica has up to 1.5% alkaloid, robusta - up to 3.
4. Grains of arabica are quite large - up to 8.5 mm, elongated; robusta have a rounded shape and do not differ in size (small).
5. What are the tastes of robusta and arabica. Differences between species are very noticeable. Food lovers choose arabica. She has a soft, pleasant, slightly sour taste. Robusta, by contrast, is strong and knits a little. Nevertheless, only she keeps her beloved foam.
6. What share in world production does robusta and arabica have? The differences are quite noticeable. After all, Arabica is an indisputable champion. 70% of coffee made on our Earth has this particular taste. But without robusta, coffee prices would skyrocket to very high numbers.
7. Cost is another difference between species (arabica and robusta). The differences in price are quite noticeable. The issue of Arabica coffee costs a round sum. He is the most expensive species. Robusta is much cheaper, due to the fact that care is not capricious and gives a higher yield.
The price of coffee also includes its processing. Wet is much more expensive than dry. Arabica is processed using the wet method. The dry method is used for robusta.
Arabica and Robusta. Differences reviews
People who are well versed in coffee can easily distinguish any beans from each other in color, shape, smell, depending on where the coffee grew. But we should not go into such details, because for the most part we are just lovers of this wonderful drink. For us, there is enough information that the combination of several types of coffee beans in one mixture gives us the unique taste of our favorite drink.
Some people like robusta more. Others claim to be crazy about the taste of arabica. Therefore, each person has his own preferences, and not only in the choice of coffee.
A few recommendations in the end
1. Is it worth it to use Robusta variety at all? You can drink such coffee, if only it is from expensive varieties. Since cheap varieties are not very tasty and not useful at all. No matter what anyone says, but still coffee connoisseurs claim that they mix Arabica and Robusta just to save money. Since the sale of coffee is a profitable business, and no one wants to lose money.
2. Is it recommended to mix arabica and robusta? If you have tried several types of arabica and their combination, and you did not like them much, then you can try a mixture of these grains. If you tried only one type, then for now it is better to refrain from such experiments. For starters, try to enjoy arabica and a combination of it. And then go on to combinations of arabica and robusta.
3. In what proportions is it better to combine these two types of grains? Classic version: 18% robusta and 82% - arabica. If somewhere you saw proportions where there are more robusty, know this is an attempt to save money, in which the taste of coffee deteriorates. In addition, 20% robusta is enough to have a strong foam, which is especially good in an espresso machine.
Now you know what arabica and robusta are. What are the differences, we have already found out. If you are a fan of coffee with foam, then you better combine these 2 types of coffee beans with each other. They complement each other very well. Combining them, you can feel the fullness of the taste of real coffee. The main difference between arabica and robusta is the price. Types of coffee vary in taste and composition of chemical elements.