If you are a happy owner of a house in a village or a large country cottage, then, of course, you will have to deal with the organization of water supply and arrangement of a source of clean drinking water. If the well is already there, but the water has a large amount of impurities, then you need to take care of the device of the filtration system. This is what will be discussed in this article.
Why do we need a filter to purify water from a well?
If your well is not artesian, which is very rare, then not only sand particles, but also soil impurities, microorganisms, and elements of heavy metals may be present in the fluid. The filtration system is able to purify the water entering the water supply system and make it suitable for drinking. Serious health problems can be obtained with daily use of low-quality water, so take water treatment seriously.
As for the filter, which is placed directly in the well, its main task is to rid the water of small particles of rock, sand, lime and clay. Water purification will extend the life of pumping equipment, as well as increase the life of treatment devices that are in the house.
Before choosing a filter for water purification from a well, you need to give a water sample for chemical analysis to the laboratory. Only after that it will become clear which treatment system to install. Water after the first stage of purification is not yet potable. In order to normalize the hardness of water and reduce mineralization, additional treatment is required. It is at this stage that the concentration of iron, magnesium, zinc and other small-fraction impurities decreases.
Purchased Filter Options
Filters that are installed directly in the well are sold in hardware stores. The finished version can only be replaced. Here are examples of the most popular filters that are used to purify water in the well, and post-treatment options that are located in the house itself.
- Filter for wells with stainless mesh. Length - 2 m, width - 125 mm, wall thickness - 5 mm. Price - 6200 rub.
- The filter for wells is slot-hole. Length - 2 m, width - 125 mm, wall thickness - 5 mm. It is a casing plastic pipe with horizontal holes. Price - 3000 rubles.
- Iron removal filter based on reaction with oxygen. Suitable for cottages and houses with low water consumption. Price - from 9000 rubles.
Prices for water filters from the well are quite high. Despite the fact that making them yourself is not so difficult. Consider the manufacturing technology of some options for filtration systems at home.
What do you need to make a filter yourself?
To make a filter for a well, you will need the following tools:
- marking pencil;
- drill with drills;
- a circular saw;
From materials, prepare a steel two-meter pipe, stainless steel wire and brass mesh.
DIY perforated filter
The price of the filter for wells is quite high, despite the simplicity of the design. In order to make a home-made filter not inferior in effectiveness to the purchased option, it is necessary to observe all the technological subtleties in the independent manufacture of this device.
The filter will be based on a steel pipe, plastic can also be used, but it should not contain impurities harmful to health. A section with perforation should occupy 25% of the entire length of the pipe. On one side, back off 40-50 cm, a sump will be located here. Mark up for future holes. The distance between them should not exceed 2 cm. It is better to arrange the holes in a checkerboard pattern. Using a drill, drill holes and strip them. Close the bottom of the pipe with a wooden cork. Wrap the pipe in mesh. The filter is ready to install. It is better to use a steel pipe, it will be much more reliable and durable compared to plastic.
DIY slotted filter
The manufacturing technology of the slit filter is similar to the previous version. We will also need a steel pipe. We outline the segments along which the grinder will cut the cracks. We arrange them horizontally in a checkerboard pattern. The thickness of the gap is selected based on the fractions prevailing in the rock. There should not be a dead zone at the top of the filter.
To increase the rigidity of the pipe frame, it is necessary to wind a stainless wire in 2 cm increments along the pipe spiral. In some places, at a distance of 50 cm, solder the wire to the pipe. From above we close the filter with a brass grid and install the structure in the well.
High iron in water
Iron is an element vital to human life. In small quantities, it is found in foods such as meat, fish, some fruits and legumes. Iron should also be present in drinking water, sanitary standards allow the presence of 0.3 mg / l. If there is a high content of this element in water, then iron will begin to be deposited in the human body. With an average daily consumption of very hard water in the amount of 1.5-2 liters, serious health problems can occur. We list some of them.
- a slight discoloration of the skin, they begin to take a yellowish color;
- skin irritations, peeling, allergic reactions;
- enlarged liver;
- lethargic state, weakness, fatigue;
- disruption of the digestive system;
- loss of attention, impaired memory.
With long-term use of hard water, iron begins to be deposited in vital organs: liver, kidneys, thyroid gland, heart. This can lead to serious illness. If the water in the well contains no more than 3 mg / l, then it should be cleaned only to improve taste characteristics, since this is the maximum allowable norm for drinking water.
The reason for the appearance of a high concentration of iron in water is the location of mineral rocks, such as red, brown and magnetic iron ore, in the deep layers of the earth. To determine the amount of iron in water, it is necessary to pass a sample to a chemical laboratory.
The essence of the aeration process is to purify water from iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide. During aeration, oxidative reactions occur, as a result of which insoluble substances are formed, which are extracted from water at the next stage of purification.
In industrial plants, the oxidation process takes place in large tanks, while using a compressor, due to which the process is faster. During the reaction, ferrous iron contained in water, when reacted with oxygen, is converted to ferric, which precipitates in the form of rust.
The installation will be based on a large tank made of food-grade plastic. Water will enter the tank through the solenoid valve. It should not be small, since a good pressure is required, then water will fill the tank faster. The flow of fluid is carried out by means of a nebulizer, this is how oxygen saturation occurs. You also need to install a compressor, you can use the aquarium option.
The use of purified water from the tank is allowed up to a certain mark. Approximately 25% of the tank volume should remain. Remember that sediment is concentrated at the bottom. For domestic purposes, such a installation is not very convenient to use, since it takes a lot of space to locate the necessary equipment.
Chlorine water treatment is necessary in order to cleanse the liquid of microorganisms, viruses and bacteria that can be the causative agents of serious diseases. The treatment of the water tank with chlorine should take place for at least 30 minutes. The amount of chlorine and its derivatives is calculated in accordance with the norms that are regulated by the "Instructions for the control of the disinfection of domestic drinking water." The temperature and chemical composition of the liquid are also taken into account. With a high concentration of organic impurities, iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide, the amount of chlorine can be increased.
Sodium hypochlorite is used to clean the well with chlorine. The tablets of this substance are placed in a special device that simultaneously introduces calcium hypochlorite into the water. The purification is carried out not only to improve the quality of water, but also to rid the liquid of iron bacteria, which clog the well and reduce the passage of water through the holes of the depth filter.
Such a cleaning technology is one of the most effective methods for obtaining life-giving drinking moisture. Such iron filters for wells are used not only in industrial wastewater treatment plants, but also in private areas for country houses. Due to its chemical properties, ozone is able to react with an overwhelming number of elements, oxidizing them to insoluble precipitates. During the cleaning process, ozone neutralizes bacteria and microorganisms, without disturbing the acid-base balance.
The ozonation device is similar in structure to the aeration unit, but the process is distinguished by its multi-stage and complexity. The structure of the filter for water from a well in a house includes a generator, in which ozone is produced from oxygen in the air. Such a generator can not be assembled with your own hands, you can only buy it. Ozonizers vary in performance, the faster the incoming water is processed, the more expensive the installation.
Water enters the tank to which the generator tube is connected. According to the timer, usually at night, the generator and ozonizer are turned on and ozone is introduced, which is distributed throughout the tank. The timer is usually programmed for 2 hours. At this time, the process of oxidation of suspended metal particles and the neutralization of bacteria, viruses and other organisms. Water from the tank is passed through an additional filter, which delays the resulting sediment.
The basis of this method is the use of chemically active reagents that react with metals contained in the water column, forming complex water-insoluble compounds. The installation is presented in the form of various filters for cleaning wells from iron, which have an internal porous structure impregnated with the necessary reagents.
One of the most common synthetic minerals for catalytic purification is Birm. This porous substance easily removes iron and other metals from water. The use of this mineral together with the chlorination technology is unacceptable, since the material begins to lose its properties upon contact with chlorine.
Damper is a mineral that contains particles of copper and silver, which enhance the catalytic properties of the material. The substance thoroughly cleans the liquid of metals. MFO-47 is another novelty in the production of catalytic sorbents. For the production of this substance, quartz sand, dolomite and expanded clay are used. Filters for water from wells from iron not only cope with metals, but also disinfect liquid, killing bacteria and microorganisms.
For submersible filters, preference should be given to the perforated version. According to consumer reviews, the slotted filter often needs to be cleaned, as it silts faster. If we consider the filters that are in the house itself and play the role of post-treatment, then the most winning models on the market will be as follows:
- "Source Bio SE-10."
- Coolmart CM-101-CCA.
- "Barrier Smart".
- Geyser Gryphon.
- Brita Aluna XL.
When choosing a filtration system, the main criterion should be a chemical-biological analysis of water.
The method of water treatment is selected individually, based on the biochemical examination of the water sample. Remember that cleaning should take place in several stages, starting from the cavity of the well itself and ending with treatment facilities inside the house. After installing all the filters, it is necessary to re-analyze the water.