Plaster - the coating is beautiful, practical, and most importantly, resistant. The pyramids of Egypt could well testify in favor of the last point. Indeed, on their walls, plaster has been preserved for the third millennium.
Finishing work on this technology is carried out both inside and outside the building. In the first case, decorative plaster is widely used with subsequent processing "for invoice". For decorating the walls of a building from the outside, solutions without coloring pigments, based on gypsum, lime and cement, are most often used.
As a rule, this item is one of the most expensive in the estimate of repair and construction works, so plastering walls with your own hands is a good way to save.
Surface preparation for decorative coatings
The main objective of this stage is to ensure strong adhesion between the solution and the base. For this purpose, the surface intended for plastering is cleaned of any impurities, notches are made, moistened with water using a brush or spray gun.
It should be noted that the plastering of the walls with your own hands is not only laborious, but also quite dirty. The surface of the walls must first be cleaned with metal brushes, then cover with a broom.
Seams, if they are flush mounted, you need to choose a chisel 1.5 cm deep.
When working with slag concrete, the greatest effect can be achieved if you put a layer of plaster on a grid of thin wire. For this purpose, nails are driven into the walls and the entire surface is braided over their hats.
If you decide that plastering the walls with your own hands is not so troublesome and feasible, it's time to go to the store for tools.
You will need a trowel, the plasterer is also called her trowel. This is a small spatula with a curved handle, with which plaster mortar is mixed, sprinkled and smoothed.
Scraper - a small spatula in the shape of a trapezoid, designed for cleaning surfaces and subsequent application of putty.
A dentate, a trojan, a tongue or tongue, all these are varieties of the same tool - chisels. Used for surface preparation (notching), as well as in the formation of a textured decorative layer.
Cutting - a blade, somewhat resembling a knife with a wide blade. It covers the cracks in the plaster.
Tools such as a falcon, as a rule, a grater and a grater, are easier to make yourself from a suitable section of the board, rails and timber. Moreover, a good master in the house always has something similar.
Falcon - a square piece of plywood with sides of 40 cm, the handle is attached to the back side of it. This simple device is designed to hold small portions of the solution.
Grater or grater - different sizes of trimmed boards that wipe the surface. For convenience, they are also equipped with handles. The grater has dimensions 13 by 20 cm with a thickness of 2 cm, grater - 10 by 60 cm.
For finishing work, you need plaster for walls, gypsum, lime, cement. The latter are astringent materials and it is thanks to them that the solution solidifies.
Slaked lime is more suitable for work . In our stores, it is sold as a "lime" dough. Of course, you can cook it yourself. However, it should be borne in mind that the process of complete slaking lime takes from 14 to 30 days. Insufficiently seasoned material will ruin your entire work, as swelling, bumps and cracks will appear on the wall over time.
Now a little about which cement is more suitable for plastering walls. Experts say that in this case, slag Portland cement (with a sulfur content of not more than 2%) and Portland cement (especially grade 300) are most preferred.
Sand is best suited river, previously sifted through a fine sieve.
The color of the finished plaster is given by pigments (dry dyes). Most often used is ocher, red iron ore, graphite, soot-based mixtures. The main requirement is non-toxicity and UV resistance.
Stucco wall decoration
The coating is carried out in three stages: spray, soil, nakryvka. The first layer is made from a solution having a maximum curing rate, a weaker solution is taken for the soil, the least concentrated is used for coating.
In the first two cases, the solution is filtered through a sieve with three-millimeter cells, for the last layer - two times smaller, that is, one and a half millimeters.
Simple wall plastering with your own hands is not too difficult work, but it requires some physical dexterity. How does plastering work? If you had to observe the work of the master, most likely he acted as follows. I laid out a small portion of the solution on the falcon, took part with a trowel and threw it on the wall with force. Of course, after a little training on an incline with a solution without a hardener, you too will master this trick. But it will be easier for a novice to nevertheless spread the solution, rather than sprinkle it.
According to technology, plastering starts from top to bottom, in the direction from window to door.
Before applying the mortar, the walls must be thoroughly moistened with water to avoid cracking during drying.
The first layer - spray, should fill all the roughness. The second is soil, which serves as the basis for plaster. Apply it in two, and if necessary even in three steps, waiting for the complete drying of each previous layer. Level with the help of a rule or a half.
The solution for the topcoat is prepared with the addition of fine sand. When grouting and leveling, particles of smaller diameter fill the remaining voids, creating a smooth and even surface.
For a topcoat do not use too strong a solution, since it is too difficult to grind evenly. If decorative plaster is used, then it must be put in two or three layers.