The term "project" has specific practical meaning. Under it is understood something once conceived. The project with a task with some initial data and set goals (required outcomes) acts as a project. The latter determine how to solve it. Further in the presented article, we will consider some methods for implementing the project. Examples of schemes will also be presented.
Projects are all that contribute to a change in the environment. This category includes:
- Construction of facilities.
- Formation of new organizations.
- Development and implementation of research projects.
- Reconstruction of enterprises.
- The construction of the ship.
- The program of the project to introduce new equipment and technology.
- Creating a film strip.
- Implementation of national projects for the development of regions and much more.
The project management system provides for the formulation of goals that are created or modernized for the implementation of technological methods, the implementation of organizational documentation, the use of labor, material and other resources. This structure includes the following elements:
- Problem (plan).
- Project implementation methods (methods for solving the problem).
- Effects obtained in the process of embodiment.
Within the framework of the problem, the terms of the project are set.
The project management system is a focused and time-oriented sequential structure. It usually includes complex, one-time and irregularly repeated actions (work or event). The project implementation plan has the following features:
- The singleness and complexity of the structure.
- The specificity of financial and substantive results.
- Irregularity of incarnation.
- The specificity of the initial and final dates - given in time.
Acting as a set of tasks and actions, this structure also has the following features:
- The clarity of the goals that must be achieved. In this case, the simultaneous implementation of certain economic, technical and other requirements is provided.
- External and internal relationships of operations, work, tasks and resources used. All these elements require fairly precise coordination during the implementation of the plan.
- Limited resources.
- A certain level of uniqueness of the implementation conditions, project goals.
- The inevitability of various conflicts.
The project can be considered a certain product, which is implemented in accordance with the conditions and needs of the customer - the potential owner. In a market economy, he acts as a stakeholder. The owner (customer) invests in the project own or borrowed funds. Being interested in the implementation of the plan, he makes decisions related to the timing of implementation, cost, quality, control and other things.
Project implementation methods: value
The techniques that are used in the implementation of the plan allow:
- Define the goals of a set of measures, conduct a justification for its viability
- Identify the structure of the project. In this case, we are talking about the definition of elements such as subgoals, tasks, or other work required to be performed.
- Determine the necessary sources and amounts of funding.
- Pick up performers. The most common way to solve this problem is the announcement of tenders or competitions.
- To prepare and conclude contracts.
- Determine the timing of implementation, set a schedule for events, calculate the necessary resources.
- Consider risks.
- Provide control over the process of translating ideas.
The results of the project will depend on the art of leadership and coordination of material and human resources during the life cycle of an idea. To achieve the goals in terms of volume and composition of work, quality, time, cost and satisfaction of participants, different methods are used.
Project implementation methods: examples of schemes
There are several options by which a systematic and effective implementation of the plan is carried out. These include, in particular:
- Advanced Management Scheme. Within the framework of this system, the project manager (leader) assumes responsibility for the implementation within the estimated (fixed) cost. It ensures the organization and coordination of processes in accordance with agreements between him and the participants. A manager can be a consulting or contracting company (in some cases, an engineering company).
- Accelerated construction scheme. In this case, the design and construction organization acts as the head. The customer enters into a turnkey agreement with her.
- Main system. Under this scheme, the manager (leader), agent (representative) of the customer is not responsible for the financial nature of the decisions made. Any company participating in the project can act as it. In this case, the manager is responsible for organizing and coordinating the activities. He is not in a contractual relationship with other participants (with the exception of the customer). The advantage of this scheme can be considered the objectivity of the leader. The disadvantage is the fact that the risk lies with the customer.
This definition is considered in two senses. In particular, an investment project is understood as an event, a business that involves the implementation of a specific set of actions, as a result of which the goals will be achieved. On the other hand, this is a set of settlement-financial, organizational and legal documents that are necessary for the implementation of any behavioral acts or for their description. As investments may be:
- Property rights, which are usually valued in cash, production secrets, licenses for the transfer of industrial property rights.
- Monetary assets or their equivalents (pledges, loans, credits, securities, shares and units in the authorized capital, current assets, deposits, etc.).
- Facilities, buildings, equipment and other property with liquidity and used in production.
There are various types of projects. They are classified according to various criteria. One or another type corresponds to certain methods of project implementation. Implementation methods may depend on the resources used, staffing, goals, volumes, and more. So, the following types of projects are distinguished:
- Small ones. Such schemes use simplified methods of project implementation, methods of team building, and so on.
- Qualitatively defect-free. In such schemes, the quality factor (nuclear power plants) dominates.
- Megaprojects. They represent targeted areas, including many interconnected complexes. United by common goals, allocated resources, as well as the time allotted for their implementation.
- Multiprojects. They are a complex of several interconnected schemes.
- Monoprojects. Such structures differ in clearly defined resource, time and other frameworks. They are executed by a single team.
In any project, there are two buying categories:
1. The main activity. It comes down to:
- Pre-investment activities.
- To planning.
- Formulation of documentation.
- Holding tenders, signing contracts.
- Implementation of construction and installation activities.
- Commissioning work.
- Submission of the project.
- Operation, product release.
- Equipment repair and production development.
- Dismantling equipment (closing the project).
2. Project support regarding the following points:
- Material and technical.
- Marketing (commercial).
Represents the organization of relations and relations between project elements. Building schemes usually have a variable hierarchical structure. It is formed in accordance with the operating conditions. In relation to real circuits, their internal structure should be divided into:
- Product items.
- Life cycle stages.
- Organizational structure components (including implementation methods).
Due to the clear definition of the elements is carried out:
- Project breakdown into manageable blocks.
- Distribution of responsibility regarding the use, implementation, implementation of certain activities, the establishment of communication of work with resources.
- Accurate cost analysis. These include funds, time, material resources.
- Formation of a single base for budgeting, planning and control over the direction of expenses.
- Linking work with the financial statements of the enterprise.
- The transition from common goals to specific tasks that are performed by organizational units.
It is essential in ensuring the effective implementation of tasks. The structuring process can be represented as follows:
- The formation of the tree of goals. In this case, we are talking about drawing up diagrams and graphs that reflect how the target is divided into subgoals of the next level. This is how interconnection and subordination of elements is expressed.
- Drawing up a decision tree. This diagram reflects the structure of the task of optimizing a multi-stage process. Branches represent different events that take place, nodes (vertices) reflect areas in which there is a need for choice.
- The formation of the tree of work. For each stage, the activities for the implementation of the plan should be divided into parts.
- Creation of an organizational executive structure. The purpose of this action is not only to indicate the performers. Work packages are created in which the persons involved in their implementation are indicated. This allows you to prepare network diagrams of nodal events.
- The formation of the structure of consumed resources. This is necessary to conduct an analysis of the funds necessary for the execution of a range of works. In addition, the departments responsible for the conduct of certain events are determined.
- The formation of network models. In the course of the project, trees of goals and subgoals are formed, different types of resources are structured. The hierarchically constructed graph records the resources necessary for each level.
- Drawing up a matrix of responsibility.
Designing is a responsible event. It requires knowledge of the laws of social development. This means that it cannot be based solely on the subjective needs of people. Scientific methods of project implementation allow getting rid of subjectivity. These include, in particular, the application of a matrix of ideas. This scheme involves the preparation of different solutions based on a number of independent variables. This technique is very relevant in the implementation of social projects. As a rule, their implementation is limited resources.
It is also worth mentioning such important methods of implementing a social project as analogues and getting used to the role. These approaches can act as a model, a standard, even if in their structure not everything is worked out to the end. Getting used to the role allows you to more accurately represent the tasks that should be set during the design. An analogy can be used in constructing social goals in a global sense.
An association is considered a very acceptable method in social designing. In this case, by solving problems in another social sphere, one can find the right and easier way. In this method, there is a combination of such techniques as a complete reorganization, modification and adaptation.