Life is a multifaceted and unpredictable phenomenon. A person cannot predict what will happen to him in the future. Sometimes, the situation is such that it becomes necessary to seek asylum in a foreign country. The legislation of the Russian Federation provides for a number of cases where a foreign citizen may be granted refugee status. This status is confirmed by a special certificate. It gives a person the right to be on the territory of the Russian Federation and enjoy a number of social guarantees. In order to receive it, you must go through a number of administrative procedures. What does a refugee certificate look like? Today it is a small blue book, which shows the personal data of the refugee.
Differences between Refugee and IDP
Before starting to consider a refugee certificate, let us clarify how refugee status differs from forced migrant status. Very often, these concepts are equated with each other, which is fundamentally wrong. Forced migrants, in most cases, are citizens of the Russian Federation who, for one reason or another, were forced to change their place of residence. They could move to another region of the country or return to their homeland from abroad. Such people are citizens of the Russian Federation and enjoy all civil rights and social support of the state.
A person in refugee status, although he has a number of rights and freedoms in the territory of the Russian Federation, is not a citizen. Therefore, his rights in some matters are limited. For example, he cannot carry out political activities, etc. In addition, refugee certification is a temporary phenomenon. After its expiration, the person must either leave the country or apply for a residence permit or citizenship.
A refugee certificate is issued for three years. Then it can be extended for another year. A refugee certificate for a longer period cannot be issued. For further stay in the country you will need to apply for a residence permit or citizenship.
Having received a refugee certificate in the Russian Federation, a person can live and work in peace. But his passport for this period is seized and stored in the FMS. You can pick it up only if the citizen has decided to return to his homeland. Then the passport is returned on the basis of the application upon request.
Who can apply for refugee status in the Russian Federation
Any foreign citizen over the age of 18 can get a refugee certificate. But only if he has the following reasons:
- The applicant for refugee status does not have permanent citizenship, and he does not plan to return to the country where he constantly resided before, fearing for his life and health.
- At home, the applicant was subjected to persecution on religious grounds, racial, social grounds, etc.
- There is a real danger that the complainant could become a victim of political persecution and repression at home.
An application for refugee status for a minor is submitted by a parent or guardian. At the time of applying for refugee status, one of the parents or guardians enters the minor in his documents. However, as an exception, such a statement may be accepted from the minor himself if he arrived in the country alone.
What gives the legal status of a refugee in the Russian Federation
Persons who have received a refugee certificate in the Russian Federation can use the following privileges:
- To live in the territory of the Russian Federation.
- Receive qualified medical care.
- Can be accommodated in temporary accommodation centers for free.
- Get a job without special permission.
- Get free food and social assistance.
- To issue SP.
A medical examination procedure is required to obtain this status. It is conducted free of charge at hospitals and medical centers. An applicant for refugee status must well understand that in this case, details about his state of health are not a medical secret. Therefore, the results of the tests, including the result of the HIV test, will be provided to the authorized bodies. Only after this, a person who has received refugee status will be entitled to medical care.
The procedure for obtaining a certificate
In order to obtain a refugee certificate in the Russian Federation, first of all, you must submit an application to the authorized body. Since life circumstances can be different, there are several options for submitting such a petition:
- if the person is outside the Russian Federation, he must contact the diplomatic mission or consulate;
- if the person is in the territory of the country, then such an application is submitted to the Ministry of Internal Affairs at the place of stay;
- in case of crossing the state border in order to obtain refugee status, the application is submitted to the border agency of the FSB, directly at the checkpoint;
- in the event that a person was forced to illegally cross the state border, he is obliged to apply to the territorial branch of the FSB or the Ministry of Internal Affairs within the first days.
An employee of the organization that is authorized to accept such a statement prepares a document from the words of the person contacting him. The application is drawn up in Russian and signed by the applicant. If the services of the translator were used in the preparation of the application, then he must also certify the document with his signature.
The applicant must submit documents that confirm the circumstances that led him to apply for refugee status. This can be medical certificates, threatening letters, evidence of political, racial or religious persecution, etc. The originals of all documents are attached to the case.
In order to establish and verify the identity of the applicant, the employee accepting the application may appoint an identification procedure. It implies a fingerprint check, inquiries to law enforcement agencies, etc.
After all the documents have been completed and the application has been accepted, the applicant is issued a certificate stating that the application has been accepted for consideration. It is valid for five days.
If a person claims to be a political refugee, then he must submit documents that confirm the threat to his life and health. Also, if a citizen appealed to the authorities of his state with a request to protect his life and health (for example, a statement was written to law enforcement agencies), but no measures were taken, then it is also necessary to submit documents that prove this fact.
In the case of a positive response to the application, the refugee shall deposit his ID with the authorized body. Instead, a temporary certificate is issued, which will be valid for a year.
The citizen must pick up all the papers personally. In addition to the refugee certificate, the applicant additionally receives a document that gives permission to enter the country (if the certificate is not issued on the territory of the Russian Federation), and a document giving the opportunity to travel outside the Russian Federation.
After the refugee status is obtained, a person can write an application for one-time assistance.
Many people have a question: is a refugee certificate an identity document? The answer is yes. Like a passport, residence permit, etc.
Among other things, after obtaining refugee status, a person automatically becomes a tax resident of the Russian Federation. This means that it is required to pay income tax on all income received.
Refusal to obtain refugee status
If the decision on the application was made negative, the applicant is presented with a document notifying him of the negative decision and the reasons for such a decision.
After receiving this notice, the applicant may appeal this decision.
Reasons for refusal
The reasons for failure in this situation can be completely different. Consider the most common:
- the deadlines for applying to the FMS or other authorized bodies for obtaining refugee status have been violated;
- previously a person received a residence permit in the country;
- the person applying for refugee status is the spouse or spouse of a citizen of the Russian Federation, which gives him the right to obtain a permanent residence permit;
- criminal proceedings were instituted against a person on the territory of the Russian Federation;
- the person indicated the commission of any crimes (economic, environmental, technological), but deliberately concealed crimes committed against humanity and the world;
- the person stated that he is a citizen of the Russian Federation, however, there are no documents confirming this fact;
- the person had previously filed the same request, but was refused;
- a person has the opportunity to apply for refugee status in another country (for example, if close relatives, etc. live there).
What to do in case of failure?
If the request was denied, the applicant may try to appeal this decision to the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation. The complaint shall indicate personal data and the essence of the matter under consideration. Refusal documents are also attached. If even in this case it was refused, and the applicant considers this decision to be unlawful, he can appeal to the court. For consideration in court, such documents are accepted if no more than a month has passed. The applicant is exempted from paying the state fee.
Deportation outside the Russian Federation
In the event that a person applying for refugee status was refused or was denied status for any reason, he is obliged to voluntarily leave the territory of the Russian Federation. Otherwise, he will be deported forcibly in accordance with the law.
Refugee certificate from Ukraine
In the light of certain political events, many have the question of whether refugee status is granted to citizens of Ukraine. According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, citizens of Ukraine, as well as citizens of other countries, can apply for a document. But there are some features:
- firstly, having received refugee status, a Ukrainian citizen undertakes not to leave the territory of the Russian Federation within a year;
- secondly, there are certain quotas for each region of Russia that regulate the number of immigrants.
A sample refugee certificate from Ukraine can be seen in the picture below.
Deprivation of refugee status
If there are substantial reasons for obtaining refugee status in the Russian Federation, it will not be difficult. But the state reserves the right not only to assign this status, but also to deprive it. There should be good enough reasons for this:
- criminal record for a crime in the territory of the Russian Federation;
- the documents provided by the person who received refugee status turned out to be false.
The decision that the person was denied refugee status is sent out within three days. Upon receipt, a person must voluntarily leave the country or appeal this decision in court. The chance that a criminal or fraudster will be re-allowed into the territory of the Russian Federation is minimal.
Refugee status is granted by many countries. If you decide to achieve it, carefully read all the nuances of the law and the features of the receipt procedure. In the event that for one reason or another it is not possible to obtain this status, contact a specialized organization that specializes in such matters. And remember, legal stay in the country is much more profitable and safer.