After checking the level of preparation, many children are given the recommendation to develop phonemic hearing. Often parents do not even know what it is and how to do it. In this article we will help to deal with such issues.
So, phonemic hearing is the ability to recognize and differentiate speech sounds. If the child is not sufficiently developed, then he incorrectly perceives some sounds, does not distinguish them when pronouncing. As a result, difficulties arise with the perception of the interlocutor's speech.
Some experts in the field of children's speech disorders distinguish several stages of mastering a child's speech:
- The first stage (pre-phonemic) is characterized by a lack of understanding in a child of speech and differentiation of sounds. During this period, the baby also does not have its own active speech.
- At the second stage, the child can distinguish between the most contrasting phonemes, but they are not yet able to differentiate in similar sounds. If a person speaks incorrectly, the baby still does not understand this. At this stage, the development of phonemic hearing in children begins.
- The third stage is characterized by the ability to distinguish the sounds of the language and hear them correctly. He understands the difference between correctly spoken words and their distorted form.
- At this stage, the phonemic hearing culminates in its development. New, regular forms of perception of sounds and their pronunciation begin to prevail. Active speech becomes correct in almost all of its manifestations.
- The final stage. Phonemic development ends. The kid is able to hear and speak correctly, to differentiate close phonemes and reproduce them correctly.
If the child has an insufficient level of development of phonemic hearing, learning to write and read is difficult: it is difficult for the child to switch from reading by letter to full perception of the word. Difficulties in writing are characterized by an abundance of spelling errors.
There are games for the development of phonemic hearing that parents and children should play:
- definition of the initial and final sound in a word;
- inventing words that begin with a specific sound;
- games with "chains of words": the player invents a word, and the second selects one that should begin on the last sound of the previous one (it is important to remember that this is not about letters, but about sounds).
- a game of “catching sounds”: mom or dad pronounce words, and the child must clap his hands or tap on an object with his wand when he hears a sound agreed upon in advance.
The harmonious development of the child is not only the level of phonemic perception and the ability to pronounce certain sounds, but also the ability to differentiate them in the flow of speech. In order to teach a child to read and write, you need to develop a phonemic ear from an early age.
If the child has deviations in speech development, he will have difficulty learning the native language: he will gradually master the articulation movements, ways of combining sounds, distinguish words and more.
Hearing is one of the main conditions for the formation of speech. However, even in children with good hearing, disturbances in the pronunciation of sounds are observed. There may be several reasons: disruption of the articulatory apparatus, a low level of development of phonemic perception, or both one and the other.
Phonemic perception is the development of phonemic hearing and sound analysis. If the children have it at a high level, then they begin to speak early, because they perceive the sounds of speech well and quickly.
In case of deviations from the norm, the child’s pronunciation is disturbed, learning to read slows down and errors appear in the letter. Then you need to seek help from a specialist - a speech therapist.