With thoughts about what youth is, romantic songs, poems by poets, dates under the moonlight, high hopes and unlimited possibilities immediately come to mind. However, this is just the outer shell. Youth is an interesting and difficult period for study by psychologists.
What is youth: definition
Youth is a stage of the physical maturation of a person, as well as the development of personality, which lies between childhood and adulthood. From the point of view of psychology, this is a transition from the dependence inherent in the child to the independence and responsibility inherent in mature people. From the point of view of physiology, at this moment, physical and puberty is completed. The achievement of social maturity is characterized by such a concept as "youth" or "youth". Age boundaries are determined by the interval from 14 to 18 years, if we are talking about domestic psychology. Foreign experts, however, believe that youth begins at 16.
"What is youth?" - This is one of the oldest questions that psychologists have ever asked. Despite the huge number of theoretical developments and practical research, this problem remains relevant to this day. It can be considered in terms of the following approaches:
- Biogenetic theory draws attention to physiological as well as socio-psychological issues. This refers to the process of maturation of the body and personality, which occurs at certain stages, which are universal. This theory in its own way determines the moment from which people can be classified as "youth". Age boundaries - the beginning of puberty (12 years) and before full adulthood (25 years), a person is considered to be young, subject to romanticism.
- Sociogenetic theory explains the importance of youth, based on what place a person occupies in the structure of society. There is a close relationship between the natural formation of personality and the properties of the environment. At a young age, the formation of a worldview, behavioral characteristics, as well as a circle of communication takes place. Moreover, the age limits are not specified, as they are purely individual.
- The psychogenetic approach draws attention to psychological processes. This direction focuses on emotions that determine behavioral characteristics. At each new stage, the personality acquires all new properties that were absent earlier. Youth is the fifth stage. it is at this moment that a person realizes his own individuality and uniqueness.
- An integrated approach simultaneously takes into account all factors (domestic psychologists are guided by it) when defining the concept of "youth". Age is measured by the period from the onset of puberty to the final formation of personality.
Any period in a person’s life is associated with any activity. What is youth? This is, first of all, the choice of the future life path in which professional self-determination occupies a special place. Thus, the choice of a future occupation becomes the central problem of the youthful period.
Given the need to acquire a profession, young age is accompanied by continuous training. At the same time, it becomes more profound and conscious than at an earlier age. It is characterized by the following features:
- wide and deep perception of educational material aimed at the formation of future professional knowledge;
- in addition to the passive perception of information, the individual resorts to its active and independent search.
Social motives of adolescence
Childhood, youth, maturity - each of the periods of a person’s life is characterized by certain motives that determine his activity. Young people are full of aspirations and hopes for the future. In this regard, they are guided by the following factors:
- conviction of the need for continuous development, which is achieved by continuing education;
- professional self-determination caused by the need to prepare for further independent life;
- social motivation caused by the desire to benefit others.
Factors for choosing a future profession
Considering that a young man in his youth should choose a future occupation, psychologists pay great attention to motives. So, the main factors of choice are the following:
- social - prestige and the opportunity to take its rightful place in society;
- personal - the presence of qualities and character traits necessary for a particular profession;
- material - the opportunity to ensure for themselves and their family a decent existence.
A mass of vital problems is characterized by such a period as youth. The years of life of a young man are made up of many key issues, the main of which are the following:
- preliminary selection of a future profession, which consists of a life position, abilities and a priority area of knowledge;
- adherence to the values that define social consciousness, as well as interpersonal relationships;
- the growth of social activity, which is not a banal interest, but a desire to take a direct part in events;
- the formation of a worldview on fundamental issues;
- expanding the sphere of interests, as well as life needs, which leads to the need for more material resources;
- social orientation of the individual, which implies the search for his place in society;
- search for an answer to the question about the meaning of life and the purpose of man in it.
At a certain moment, a young man embarks on the path to becoming self-conscious, which is inextricably linked with the formation of the so-called "I". It occurs in the following areas:
- the formation of a different attitude to the emotional sphere (feelings become not just a reaction to external events, but personal characteristics);
- awareness of the irreversible flow of time (this fact makes the young man think more seriously about his future and drawing up an individual life plan);
- the formation of a holistic view not only of his body and internal structure, but also of moral, volitional and intellectual qualities.
In his youth, a young man begins to reconsider relations with others, in particular with peers. So, they are divided into two categories - friends and comrades. The first are the closest, those that deserve devotion and respect. With all other peers, young people build companionship, which implies courteous treatment, mutual respect and mutual assistance.
Communication tactics and building relationships with peers is built, largely on the basis of future well-being (both psychological and physical). The most interesting and “useful” people remain in the circle of communication. The rest find themselves in a kind of emotional isolation. Nevertheless, youthful friendships are often idealized and illusory.
Also, for a young age, the emergence of such a deep feeling as love is characteristic. This is connected not only with the completion of puberty, but also with the desire to have a close person close by, with whom problems and joyful events can be shared. Beloved man is a kind of ideal both in terms of personal and in terms of external qualities.
Youth in the modern world
What is youth? This is a dynamic category that is not permanent. Over time, with the development of society, it changes significantly. So, in connection with the rapidly growing acceleration, youth comes much earlier. But social maturity comes a little later. This is to some extent due to the fact that modern parents take care of their children much longer.
As at any other time, young people strive for work in order to independently provide themselves with cash. Nevertheless, the current trend is that young men do not want to do "dirty work", which brings small incomes and determines low social status. There is a tendency toward the desire to receive everything at once.
Youth is the most wonderful time in human life. It is associated not only with romantic feelings and dreams, but also with great opportunities in terms of organizing your future. Research and recommendations of psychologists help to direct the activities of young people in the right direction and push them to make the right decisions.