Recycling waste and garbage is not only a good thing for the environment and society as a whole, but also an opportunity to make good money.
The value of processing for society
Indeed, garbage is the raw material that literally rolls underfoot. Garbage processing as a business can be attributed to a socially significant sphere. The benefits of this type of activity are not only felt in the entrepreneur’s wallet, but also become cleaner around. The relevant business plan is likely to not only receive approval from the municipal authorities, but there is also the possibility of obtaining grants and subsidies from the budget.
Therefore, two areas of activity can be chosen as the optimal solution: to integrate the processing stage into an existing production cycle or to build a separate garbage processing plant. So, let's look at everything in order.
Types of waste for processing
Different types of waste can be recycled. It is from their choice that the implementation of the subsequent stages of production launch depends. The main varieties of secondary raw materials include:
- waste paper (paper and cardboard);
- rubber products (e.g. tires);
- plastics and polymers;
- glass containers and glass battles;
- sawdust and other wood waste;
- non-ferrous and ferrous metals.
Stages of the production process
The entire production process consists of several stages. Therefore, the entrepreneur needs to decide: whether his company will only sort and process garbage in order to obtain semi-finished products (materials that can become raw materials in another production), or it will be a “closed cycle”, and the finished product will be obtained at the output. As for semi-finished products, one can cite the following examples: rubber tires are obtained from automobile tires, special granules from glass, and small pressed blocks from polymers. As a finished product, pellets obtained from wood waste can be noted, chipboard is made from sawdust, and toilet paper is obtained from waste paper.
By the way, I would like to dwell on the paper waste processing business in more detail, since its implementation is an excellent opportunity to save the life of many trees. From the obtained raw materials, two types of the finished product can be obtained: writing paper and cardboard. Moreover, cardboard recycling is a rather profitable and quickly paid back production process.
Technical equipment of the waste recycling process
So, the entrepreneur decided on the production orientation of his business. The next important step is garbage processing technology. To do this, you must purchase the appropriate equipment. If we consider a universal waste processing plant, then significant costs will be required at the very beginning of the organization of this business. At the same time, manually operated machine tools and automated lines vary significantly in cost.
There will still be more affordable equipment for the processing of one type of garbage. Its list is directly dependent on the choice of production specifics.
Equipment for the processing of car tires
For example, when processing tires, you need the following equipment:
- For their cutting, there are separate machines for cutting sidewalls, cutting tires into separate tapes, squeezing rings, etc.
- For grinding and subsequent separation - a cutting machine, rollers for processing the obtained chips into crumbs, a magnetic separator and a conveyor belt.
As a result, the resulting crumb rubber can be widely used as an additive in asphalt during the repair of pavement. This semi-finished product can be quite successfully sold to road repairmen.
Equipment for the processing of household and wood waste
If it is planned to recycle household waste, for example, plastic bottles, then in this case it is necessary to purchase equipment for:
- cleaning and washing;
- granulation and manufacture of plastic flakes;
- pressing briquettes of whole bottles.
A basic set of equipment (machines and devices) can cost an entrepreneur up to 500 thousand rubles, an automatic line - at least 1 million rubles.
When processing this type of garbage, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the bottles must be carefully re-sorted taking into account the color and type of polymer.
To date, the most affordable equipment for the processing of wood waste (pellets) remains, since due to its use the business entity can immediately receive the finished product, rather than semi-finished products or raw materials. This is the technological process of the so-called "closed cycle", and mini-machines complete absolutely all stages of the production business: from thorough grinding to granulation. And their cost is quite affordable - up to 300 thousand rubles. Finished products in the form of briquettes are fuel for boiler rooms and home boilers.
Registration of necessary documents
If garbage processing is considered as a business, then this already applies to production activities, for which a corresponding license is required. It can be obtained at Rosprirodnadzor both to an individual entrepreneur and to a legal entity subject to all the necessary requirements. Among them, the presence of:
- The territory and the corresponding premises necessary for the organization of this production. Also, such an important moment as garbage storage should be taken into account. According to sanitary standards, at least 600 m distance from the housing estate must be observed.
- The necessary equipment is precisely the declared specialization.
- Certified vehicles for the transport of waste.
- Employment contracts with employees (staff training required).
When registering this license, it is necessary to present: project documentation, the relevant permit of the sanitary epidemiological station, the conclusions of the Ministry of Emergencies, Rostekhnadzor, Rospotrebnadzor and a lease or land documents. Each individual permit is not free and costs about 1,5-2 thousand rubles. Also, at this stage, expenses may arise for putting the territory and premises in order.
The term for passing the procedure for obtaining a license is from a week to several months. It should be borne in mind that separate licenses are required for each type of activity: waste collection, transportation, storage and processing.
Thus, all necessary permits have been obtained, the premises have been prepared, equipment has been imported and installed. Therefore, it is time to start recruiting staff. In other words, it is necessary to organize the production process itself.
Provision of production with raw materials
Recycling as a business should include such an important moment, as getting recyclable materials. In this case, there are several options that differ from each other depending on the type of raw material selected.
If it is planned to process construction waste, then it can be taken at the appropriate industries or in carpentry workshops. At any construction site, there is a constant problem with garbage collection. And if the entrepreneur will be offered pickup, then such raw materials can be obtained for nothing (only the costs of organizing transportation are expected).
Getting car tires can also be arranged with a minimum of investment. For example, it is easy to negotiate with tire service and service stations. Waste paper can be obtained from stores in which there is a lot of packaging and containers, as well as institutions with active workflow.
However, if we are talking about the processing of household waste, then in this case things are somewhat more complicated. Since the population is involved here, it is possible to organize appropriate waste collection points, conclude special agreements with management companies. This may require special containers in which separate collection of waste will be carried out.
Another option for household waste is the organization of sites for their reception and storage. Such points should be located in residential areas, so that it would be profitable for the population to hand in the garbage for a small fee, rather than throwing it in the tank. Such a point should be equipped with scales.
Advantages and disadvantages of a business
Waste recycling as a business has certain advantages and disadvantages.
So, the advantages include:
- High profitability, which is a huge advantage, as it contributes to a good profit.
- Respect and the green road on the part of state bodies, as the environment is being cleaned up and landfills are becoming smaller.
However, as with any production, there are a number of disadvantages, among which it is necessary to highlight the main ones:
- Certain difficulties at the initial stage. As shown above, the preparation of all necessary documentation may take several months.
- The use of manual labor. In this case, a competent employee motivation system should be thought out.
- Ensuring a stable supply of raw materials, as well as identifying markets for finished products.
Despite all the shortcomings cited, which ultimately are represented only by difficulties, this type of business deserves the attention of the business sector, as it can benefit not only the business entity, but also the environment and people. Therefore, business entities in expressing a desire to engage in waste processing should be encouraged by government agencies.