Fans of chess games are well aware that the result of rivalry can be not only the well-known “checkmate”, but also another, more ambiguous result, which is called a “stalemate situation”. This is such a situation in a chess game when the king is not under the check, but there is no possibility of steps for the pieces. The situation is hopeless and since some times means a draw in a classic chess game.
Why are there no winners or losers?
How does a stalemate situation in chess arise? As a result of previous moves (in particular, the move made by the opposite player), a player who has the right to move cannot take this opportunity, since there are no options for moving the pieces that do not violate the rules of the game. At the same time, the king was not set to check, which means that no one wins. As a result, a hopeless situation arises, there are no losers and winners, but there are no moves either.
This situation was resolved and designated in the 19th century as a draw, which is quite fair. It is this interpretation of the stalemate situation that is enshrined in the worldwide code of chess rules (FIDE). However, earlier in different countries of the world other options were proposed for interpreting the impasse that arose. Let's consider some of them.
When did a stalemate not equate to a draw?
So, for example, in the Middle Ages in many countries of Europe, as well as in the Middle East, the winner was the one who made the last move in a chess game. In the 15-18 centuries in Spain, this situation also brought victory to the last resembling player, but its price was lower than the classic gain. As a result, the winner did not receive the entire, but only half of the legal prize.
There were, however, other interpretations of this outcome of the game. The player who placed the stalemate (that is, created the stalemate situation) was considered a loser. These rules were valid in the 9th century in India, in the 17th century in Russia, and in England they were applied until the 18th century.
A draw in a chess game was declared in Italy and France, and since the 19th century it has become a universally accepted rule throughout the world.
"Our whole life is a game," or On stalemate situations outside the playing field
However, the term "stalemate" is used not only in chess. This is today a fairly common expression, applicable to various life situations. It can be used in a variety of areas of life, ranging from love / family relationships to politics and economics.
Here are some typical examples when a stalemate situation occurs in life.
Pat in personal life
What does the stalemate situation in the family mean? Often there are cases when, in the course of a life together, relationships come to a standstill. However, to come to some kind of decision, to find a way out of it does not work. For example, a classic story: a housewife wife takes care of the house and raises children, her husband drinks, but brings money to the family. Their relationship has long rested only on children, but they cannot part, because children need both a father and a mother, and the woman herself will not be able to provide a family. On the other hand, the offspring grows up and watches a constantly drinking father and an unhappy mother. Is it worse to get a divorce or continue to “artificially support family life”? Often in such cases, women feel the hopelessness of their position, but they also can’t decide anything. There is a stalemate on the face, but with a great desire it is solvable.
There are less tragic examples of such situations. The simplest - two young men take care of a girl. One is promising, promising and stable. She is in love with another, but she is not sure of his constancy, and the possibilities of achieving success. What to choose - confidence and comfort or love with obstacles? There you have the stalemate. This is the inability to make a choice (move).
Pat in economics
Another example is from the field of economics. Disproportion in the Russian venture capital market by sectors and the ratio of free money to real investment. Most of the funds invested in fast-paced Internet projects (up to 70%), which in the long run do not have much potential. At the same time, only 15% of the available investments in the market enter the biotechnology / pharmaceutical sector, which is the most attractive in terms of importance and growth rate, while other segments account for even less available money. At the same time, there is a shortage of worthwhile projects and companies in which funds could be effectively invested. As a result, a stalemate situation arises - this is an oversupply of free cash, along with a lack of projects for their investment.
The stalemate in the political arena
Often this term is used in relation to various political events. So, for example, there was a rally on Bolotnaya Square and a situation that arose in Ukraine. Especially noteworthy was the situation on Maidan. The protests, which began with the support of European integration, escalated into a mass movement as a result of the beating of protesters by the police. The movement began to gain more and more scale in connection with the growth of dissatisfied (which is not surprising). But it was already impossible to curl up and leave, otherwise it would be a defeat and in the future would have to "hide from the police in any peaceful situation" (according to sociologist Andrei Bychenko). However, the authorities could not simply dismiss Zakharchenko and dismiss criminal cases against the Berkut fighters (those who had beaten the students). So the confrontation continued, leading to numerous deaths and giving rise to what we have at the moment. The situation is stalemate, but it was possible to get out of it with less losses with competent and deliberate behavior by the authorities.
Conclusion: do not create stalemate situations
There are many examples when a dead end occurs in a game or in life. And if in chess this is just a draw, then the stalemate in life can turn out to be a much more sad, and sometimes dangerous outcome. In personal life, a sense of hopelessness can gradually develop into a protracted depression, in the economy - lead to loss of financial resources and imbalances in a particular market, in politics - to confrontation between the people and the authorities, to a decrease in the authority of the government, as well as to numerous victims (as it is not times happened not only in Ukraine, but also in many other countries).
Therefore, it is so important to always have a choice and not to allow a stalemate when there is no way out and it is impossible to continue the “game”.