Today, not every citizen has enough free cash to buy an apartment. Many have to use loans. Target loans give the right to apply for a tax deduction on interest on a mortgage, provided that the documents are executed in the territory of the Russian Federation.
Property deduction is a privilege that allows you to save on a mortgage. When a person buys real estate, he can return from the budget the personal income tax paid in the amount of 13%. The maximum amount is limited to 2 million rubles. If the property is more expensive, then you can get from the state only 2000 x 0.13 = 260 thousand rubles. And for those who have not fully collected this amount, since 2014 they are allowed to get from another property. Mortgages also have the right to receive compensation in the amount of 390 thousand rubles. (13% of 3,000 thousand rubles) from interest paid.
Compensation can only be obtained with a targeted loan. That is, the agreement with the bank should indicate that the funds were issued for the purchase or construction of housing in the territory of the Russian Federation. A deduction from expenses can be obtained only from the same property for which the main one was drawn up, if the transaction was concluded before 2014. Funds must be spent on these purposes. The interest deduction is no longer tied to the main one, it can be applied to another property.
Until 2013, a property tax deduction for a mortgage was provided in the amount of interest paid. Since 2014, amendments to the code entered into force, according to which a restriction was introduced in the amount of compensation of up to three million rubles for transactions that were concluded after 2013. A tax deduction on interest on a mortgage is provided in addition to the principal on the loan body. It is also limited to 2 million rubles.
It turns out that citizens seem to have a bonus. But they cannot use it, because the tax deduction on interest on a mortgage is limited. Legislative changes are designed to correct this shortcoming. The opportunity to receive compensation is, of course, good. But the question is, how many real average Russians can buy apartments for their lives? The government suggests that in the near future mortgage rates will drop to 12-13%, which, along with the innovation, will spur demand in the real estate market.
Tax deduction (mortgage): list of documents
Since the title deeds were handed over along with the first filing of the declaration, in order to process compensation, you must collect and provide
- 3-personal income tax return;
- copy of passport;
- certificate of income 2-PIT ;
- application for compensation;
- loan agreement;
- receipt of payment or extract from personal account;
- repayment schedule;
- certificate from a credit institution about actually paid interest.
This package of documents must be transferred to the tax at the place of residence.
Co-ownership of property
If the apartment was purchased by several owners before the end of 2013, then at the first filing of the declaration, a statement is made on the distribution of the deduction between all owners. In the same ratio, the compensation of the principal amount of the debt and interest is distributed. For transactions executed after 2014, such a statement is updated annually.
Making a tax deduction for a mortgage begins from the year when the balance of compensation for the principal amount is received. Previously dealing with this issue is pointless. In the case of shared ownership of property, the deduction is distributed in the same ratio as indicated in the certificate of ownership.
How to get a mortgage tax deduction?
Compensation of interest is calculated on the basis of the actually paid amounts. Therefore, every year you need to take a certificate from the bank, which describes the scheme of debt repayment. Based on this document, a 3-NDFL declaration is drawn up.
For objects purchased before the end of 2013, a deduction can be made for the entire amount of expenses. Transactions entered into since 2014 are subject to different rules. If the cost of paying interest for the entire period of the contract does not exceed 3 million rubles, then you can get the tax deduction on the mortgage for the full amount. Otherwise, only agreed 300 thousand rubles are compensated. If the loan exceeds the price of the apartment, then the interest refund will be calculated based on the cost of the purchase in the total amount of the contract. Therefore, the maximum amount is 260 thousand rubles. when buying real estate for their money, and when registering a mortgage - 786,700 rubles.
Mortgage tax deduction calculator
- The cost of the apartment is 1.7 million rubles. Deduction amount: 1.7 x 0.13 = 221 thousand rubles. (loan body only).
- The cost of the apartment is 4 million rubles. The amount of the main compensation: 2 x 0.13 = 260 thousand rubles.
The remaining 200 thousand rubles. do not fall under deduction. Only the amount spent on buying an apartment is taken into account. The resulting figure is divided between the Doleviks in a certain ratio. If a simultaneous transaction is carried out (buying a new apartment and selling an old one), then this money can be used to pay personal income tax on the sale of property.
Who can get compensation
A military mortgage tax deduction is a tax refund. Therefore, compensation can only be received by citizens of the Russian Federation who receive official income and pay personal income tax from it in the amount of 13%. The same applies to non-residents who work for at least 6 consecutive months in a year on the territory of the Russian Federation. If the property is drawn up for a minor child, then the deduction can get the parents. Pensioners who have a source of income in the amount of 5534 rubles / month. (with the exception of benefits) can also apply for compensation. Women on maternity leave may receive money after going to work. If the housing was purchased earlier, then the documents can be issued separately for income, before and after the holidays. If this year there is not enough salary to receive a deduction, then this money does not disappear anywhere. They simply carry over to the next calendar period. This situation is often found in people who officially receive only a minimum wage, and the remaining amount - in an envelope. There are even situations when the mortgage is actually paid, and compensation is not formalized, since the income is minimal. How to get a deduction?
Option one - contact the tax
From January 1 to April 30 of the period following the accumulation of the amount, the following documents must be submitted at the place of permanent residence:
- passport (residence permit);
- certificate from the employer 2-NDFL;
- account details;
- contract of sale.
All papers are provided in the original and certified copies. An on-site application for a deduction is written. Documents are considered within 3 months. In rare cases, a tax office may call a person to clarify issues or obtain additional information. If approved within 30 days, the specified deduction amount will be credited to the specified account. First, the body of the loan is payable, and then interest. But in the declaration it is better to indicate both amounts from the first period, so that later the tax officers do not have questions.
There is no statute of limitations for documents as such. Even if the apartment was bought five years ago, money can be obtained from the accumulated income for the past period, by submitting a preliminary declaration. If the mortgage was issued in foreign currency, compensation is still paid in rubles at the Central Bank rate as of the day of payment.
The tax authority may refuse to receive a payment if:
- property is acquired in the name of the employee at the expense of the employer;
- part of the cost was paid by means of the Young Family program, military mortgages, maternity capital; in this case, the deduction can be made only for the amount of own money;
- parties to the transaction - interdependent persons: children; parents, grandchildren, spouses;
- not all of the documents have been provided.
The second option - at the place of work
The tax deduction for the purchase of an apartment is executed as non-payment of personal income tax on salary. To use such a scheme, you need to get a certificate from the inspection on the right to benefits and provide it to the employer along with the following documents:
- certificate of registration of property;
- transaction processing agreement;
- application for compensation;
- receipt of cash by the seller.
These documents are transmitted to the employer once every 12 months to receive compensation. If a person has changed several jobs, then a deduction for a new place can be made out only from the next calendar year.
In 2014, a person purchased an apartment worth 7 million rubles, of which 3 million rubles. were paid by a loan issued for 13 years. The amount of accrued interest is 1.5 million rubles. The income of an individual for the same period amounted to 900 thousand rubles.
The loan body exceeds the maximum amount with which the deduction can be made. Therefore, 2 million rubles are used for calculations. The amount of compensation will be:
2,000 x 13% = 260 thousand rubles - from the loan body;
1,500 x 13% = 195 thousand rubles. - with interest.
Amount of tax withheld: 900 x 13% = 117 thousand rubles.
The amount of personal income tax paid on salary during the year does not cover the deduction. Therefore, in 2015, a person will receive 117 thousand in compensation. And the rest (143 thousand rubles) is carried forward.
Tax deduction on interest on a mortgage in the amount of 195 thousand rubles. can be used for 13 years, that is, throughout the entire loan term. This compensation is provided as the actual commission is paid to the bank. Therefore, annually you need to take a package of documents, including a certificate that describes how the debt is repaid, and transfer them to the tax. This example is suitable for the case of single ownership of an apartment. If there are several owners or there is equity participation, then the compensation is distributed among all owners in a certain proportion. The required amount is transferred to a bank account, and then the money goes to pay the loan debt. They do not give out to their hands. Payment documents must be issued to the person who draws up the deduction.
In the dry residue
Property deduction allows Russians to compensate for part of the cost of a mortgage. The maximum amount of compensation is 786.7 thousand rubles. But this money on hand is not paid. They arrive in a bank account and are used to pay off the outstanding balance.