Farm development is not possible without transporting farm animals. Farmers participate in exhibitions, sell and buy livestock. All these actions require an accurate and careful attitude to animals. To deliver a horse or a cow from one point to another, the farmer needs to properly organize the transportation of cattle, collect the necessary documents and prepare the vehicle.
Delivery by transport company
When transporting farm animals over long distances, it is more convenient to use the services of trucking enterprises. Employees of companies that specialize in this field will provide the necessary information to the owner of the farm. But the farmer himself must have an idea of how freight transport in Russia is carried out by transport companies.
You can transport animals across Russia and other states in different ways. For this, the following delivery options are provided:
- By airplanes.
- By sea vessels.
- By train.
- By motor transport.
For each method of transporting livestock, a package of documents must be collected.
Transportation of cattle by plane is carried out by special airlines. Aircraft must have equipment for such cargo. It is necessary that the premises for animals are comfortable and comply with sanitary and hygienic standards. In compartments for transportation of farm animals there should be high-quality sound insulation and a minimum of overloads that occur during the flight.
Animals must be loaded onto the aircraft by qualified personnel. Airlines use special anti-slip platforms. In order not to frighten the animals during loading, it should be carried out in a calm environment, in good light. You should not shout at cattle and even more so beat.
Air transportation conditions for animals
For the transport of farm animals, you need to prepare veterinary documents. In the territory from which transportation is carried out, there should be no quarantine and outbreaks of infectious diseases. Livestock must be provided with sufficient feed and drinking water during the flight. To carry out sanitary measures, purchase means for caring for animals, as well as for cleaning the compartments of the aircraft. If on the flight landings are envisaged at airports along the route, then livestock will not be removed during a stop.
It is not allowed to transport by plane:
- Calves less than ten days old.
- Cows during pregnancy.
- Sick animals, including injured.
- Animals with soft embryos of horns.
When transporting animals, they are fixed in a stall to limit mobility. Otherwise, cattle can not only be injured, but also create an emergency in flight.
Documents for the flight
Before transportation, it is necessary to prepare accompanying documents for transporting livestock:
- Veterinary passport of the animal.
- Written permission to transport from the Ministry of Agriculture.
- Permit for transportation from veterinary supervision.
- Documents for food transported with the animal (veterinary certificate).
- Transport consignment notes.
- For international transport, transit documents are required.
Employees of the airline usually provide assistance in preparing documents and give recommendations on the preparation of animals before transportation.
The flight application should indicate:
- The total number of cattle.
- The weight of each animal.
- Total weight if several goals are to be sent.
- Purpose of transportation.
- Recommendations on keeping animals during the flight.
Subject to all the rules, livestock can easily tolerate flight and will be delivered to their destination in high-quality commercial presentation.
Transportation of farm animals by sea means of transport is carried out on specially trained ships. Transportation of livestock by water is possible on cargo barges and commercial and passenger ships, as well as in the holds of sea steamers. Water transport should be equipped with compartments and stalls that can be cleaned when transporting animals.
Special barges are equipped with spacious and clean decks, which should be equipped with fixtures for fixing livestock during rolling. On the deck do litter of sawdust or straw and put pens. Separate boxes are made for cattle, and small cattle are transported in groups of 20-25 heads. In the cold season, animals are transported at the bottom of the ship. In the warmer months, transportation is possible on the upper deck, provided that it is protected from rain and waves.
Prior to shipping on ships, only healthy livestock are allowed. One month before loading, animals must be checked by a veterinarian who will make all necessary vaccinations. The farmer must provide the vessel with food for the entire duration of the voyage. Food should be familiar to livestock in order to prevent the development of gastrointestinal diseases. During the transport of livestock, it is necessary to timely check the condition of the animals:
- Monitor feed and water availability.
- To clear stalls of manure.
- Check overall health.
When transporting over long distances, it is necessary to provide animals with a range.
Documents for shipping by sea
Package of documents required for transporting animals by sea:
- Veterinary documents with vaccination marks.
- Authorization to transport animals from the Ministry of Agriculture.
- Certificate from the State Veterinary Inspection confirming the absence of quarantine or outbreaks of disease in the area.
- Documents for food transported with the animal (veterinary certificate).
- Transport consignment notes.
- When transporting abroad, transit documents are required.
All certificates, invoices must be correctly filled out and have all the necessary stamps.
Rules for loading animals on a ship
On the day of loading onto the sea vessel, all animals undergo an additional veterinary examination of their general health and check for vaccinations. Loading ladders should be equipped with rigid sides and have anti-slip coating. It is strictly forbidden to use brute force, especially beating. You can not drag cattle by the head, horns and ears. Loading and unloading should be carried out in good light.
If farm animals need to be transported at a distance of 300 to 800 km, it is most convenient to use the services of railway companies. The train can transport horses, cows, sheep, goats and poultry. For transportation use special or freight cars.
When transporting livestock in ordinary freight trains, the wagons are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. Places for animals should be equipped with stalls with feeders and drinking bowls. The staff responsible for transporting livestock should know the basics of veterinary care, have a first-aid kit with the necessary medicines. Before departure, the train is checked by the veterinary service.
Conditions for transporting animals by rail
Before loading into cars, all animals must undergo a veterinary examination. Vaccinations are done at least a month before the intended dispatch. Only healthy cattle are allowed in, while there should be no quarantine and infectious diseases in the region.
All animal transportation requirements must be met. The accompanying documents must include a certificate with a note of the veterinary certificate and the date of receipt. Validity is three days from the date of issue. All veterinary certificates must be legibly completed, have the appropriate stamps and signatures. In the consignment note it is necessary to indicate the number of animals transported and attach a waybill with the route.
The week before the trip, animals are transferred to two meals a day. Feed for transporting farm animals is purchased at livestock farms that have passed veterinary control.
Before loading, it is necessary to prepare:
- Drinking bowls.
- Drinking water.
- Tool for cleaning the stall.
Loading animals is carried out with the participation of a veterinarian in the daytime or in good light. The carriage can accommodate no more than 24 heads of large animals and up to fifty heads of small animals (depending on weight). When preparing feed and bedding, you need to take into account the number of days required for transportation, and add two days for possible delays in transit.
Transportation of animals by road
Among all cargo transportation in Russia by transport companies, such services are most in demand. Cars transport any kind of livestock and poultry. This is the most profitable and inexpensive way to transport up to 300 kilometers. Different vehicles are ordered depending on the type of animal.
To carry out the transportation of horses, special machines are used - horse transport. Such transport allows you to deliver the horse a short distance. Cars and trailers are equipped with ventilation, drinking bowls and feeders. They maintain the optimum temperature for comfortable transportation of horses. The horse trailer is ideal for transporting animals to sporting events.
For farmers who want to carry the horse on their own, there are trailer rental services. If frequent competitions or exhibitions are planned, it is better to purchase your own trailer for the transport of horses. This will save animals from unnecessary stress and possible diseases.
For transportation of bulls and cows, special cars, trailers, livestock semi-trailers are used. They are equipped with anti-slip flooring and separate stalls. Cars should be equipped with an awning from rain and sunshine. Do not transport animals on vehicles that previously transported fertilizers or other chemicals.
When transporting cows and bulls, care must be taken. It is unacceptable to scare and beat animals. When loading, it is necessary to monitor the behavior of livestock in order to exclude injuries and escape. A layer of straw and hay is laid on the floor of the vehicle. In the hot season, the trailer should be equipped with drinking bowls. In winter, it is necessary to warm the cattle truck and provide lighting.
Adult and cattle are tied in the direction of travel, while it is necessary to correctly calculate the total weight of the herd and evenly distribute it in the trailer for transporting cattle. Small individuals are not necessary to tie, while you need to allocate a place to rest in a supine position.
Documentation and rules for transportation by car
Subject to all transportation rules, the animals tolerate the road well and get to the destination in good marketable condition:
- If it takes less than six hours to transport livestock, then the animals are not fed or cleaned during the journey.
- When transporting for more than six hours, stops must be made to feed and clean the trailer.
- There must be an accompaniment of animals to personnel trained in cattle care.
- Feed and drinking water must be carefully packed and not stacked in a trailer with cows and bulls, but transported separately.
- Bulls are transported separately from cows and calves.
- It is unacceptable to transport tethered and untethered animals in one trailer.
- Cattle are transported separately from small.
- In the trailer, animals should be placed so that you can freely approach any individual.
- In case of illness or livestock death during transportation, it is necessary to call a veterinarian and quarantine until the causes of the disease are clarified.
- When the vehicle is moving, it is necessary to observe the high-speed mode, do not brake sharply, enter the turn carefully.
- Throughout the route, accompanying personnel must have all the documents for transporting livestock.
- Veterinary passports on all transported animals.
- Certificates and certificates of absence of quarantine in the region of loading.
- Help of the district veterinary station.
- Permission from the Ministry of Agriculture and transit documents in case of transportation abroad.
- Permission to transport livestock from state surveillance.
- Bill of lading indicating the number and type of animals.
If the documents are filled in incorrectly, including with different ink, in the absence of seals and signatures, cattle will not be allowed to transport.
Livestock transportation in a private car
If you want to send small cattle to a neighboring village or village, you can use your own car with a trailer. Cattle in this situation are distilled on foot. When transporting goats, sheep and poultry, it is necessary to prepare the trailer:
- Make a leash attachment.
- Cover the bottom with rubber mats, put hay on top.
- Prepare an awning.
For transportation it is necessary to have veterinary passports with vaccinations. Take along a supply of feed, drinking water and a cleaning tool. Livestock should be transported carefully, without sharp turns and braking. For transportation, it is better to choose warm, but not hot weather.