After mankind created computers, it soon came to an understanding that independent devices could not fully realize their potential capabilities. In addition, people realized the need to create a new approach to the processes of processing, transmission and storage of information, as well as an environment capable of combining all the information resources that humanity owns. This understanding was the first step towards creating systems that are used today by almost every inhabitant of the planet. We are talking about information systems, combining millions of computers located around the world - local and global computer networks.
At the moment, local and global computer networks perform many functions, but the main one is combining all the information accumulated by mankind and providing access to it at any time and from anywhere in the world. Among other things, the combination to which local and global computer networks have been and continue to be exposed has made it possible to create a system that allows processing huge information arrays with incredible speed and providing access to almost any amount of data.
Computer networks technology principles protocols, on the basis of which they work, continue to continuously improve and develop. Local and global computer networks have long turned into a whole science, the study and development of which are engaged in the best minds of mankind from around the world.
All local and global computer networks work in one standard, developed specifically for computer networks - OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)
The structure of the computer network assumes that the following components will be used in the construction and use of the network:
- Transmission medium. It can be represented by coaxial cable, telephone cable, twisted pair cable, fiber optic cable, radio and other varieties.
- Workstations. They can be represented by PC, AWP or the actual network station. In the case when the workstation is connected to the network, neither hard drives nor any other storage devices may be required. At the same time, one should not forget about the need for a network adapter - a special device that allows you to load an operating system from a network remotely.
- Interface boards. They are network ones that allow organizing the processes of interaction between the network and workstations.
- Servers. The server is a separate computer equipped with software that allows you to perform the functions of managing network resources that are shared.
- Network software.
Network protocols, on the basis of which local and global computer networks operate, are very important. Protocols provide the following services: addressing and routing information, checking for errors, organizing a request for retransmission. In addition, the protocol is entrusted with the functions of establishing rules according to which interaction will be carried out in each specific network environment.
The following network protocols are most widely used:
IP, stands for Internet Protocol. This TCP / IP stack protocol provides address information as well as routing information. Based on this protocol, the largest global network on the planet, the Internet, has been built.
IPX at NWLink. This protocol was developed by Novel NetWare and is used for routing and distribution of directions in which packets travel.
NetBEUI This protocol was developed jointly by IBM and Microsoft and is designed to provide transport services for NetBIOS.
DDP This is a data transfer protocol created by Apple and used by Apple Talk.