The process of making managerial decisions is a key moment in the work of many professions that are related to managerial activity. Today, making the optimal decision on a specific issue is very important, as the scale of activity is expanding more and more, the number of elements and relationships is growing. And the complication of relations between various elements entails uncertainty in understanding the real situation, which is associated primarily with the human factor, the distortion of information.
It is incorrect to consider that decision making is the choice of one of the possible lines of action. Features of making managerial decisions are manifested in the fact that, in comparison with the private choice of decision, this is a more responsible and formalized process that requires professional training. It must also be remembered that each management decision should be based on an analysis of the existing situation and should reflect the direction of development optimal for the enterprise.
There are two types of elements that provide a high-quality management decision-making process.
The first is a sequence of actions. This is a very important point, since all management decisions must be made on the basis of relevant and accurate information. These include: initiating the process of solving a specific issue, diagnosing the situation, forming solution options, their critical analysis in terms of consequences, implementing a managerial decision, and also evaluating its implementation.
The second is the consideration of key factors. These factors include: the right to make a specific decision, personal relationships, the choice of the right time, as well as the exchange of information about the problem. All these factors can be, both interdependent, and not.
Management decisions are nothing but the choice of an alternative, which is carried out by the head within the framework of delegated authority and is aimed at realizing the goals of the enterprise. A feature of a qualified manager is the ability to consistently and purposefully go to the solution of the issue. An important point is that determining the priority of resolving issues significantly affects the process of making managerial decisions.
The process of making managerial decisions is a cyclical sequence of actions that is aimed at solving specific problems of the organization and is manifested in the analysis, development of options, adoption of a specific decision and implementation of a set of measures.
Analysis of the managerial situation needs to be processed, previously collected information. At this stage, the organization perceives the internal and external environment. Data on the state of affairs in the organization goes to specialized employees who analyze the information, which makes it possible to identify the problem. The following is the identification and formulation of the problem, which is associated with its structuring. At the same time, one should strive to make decisions that will entail a minimum amount of difficulties in the future.
The development of solution options is aimed at determining the most optimal. But in practice, the manager does not have a large margin of time, and therefore often does not seek the optimal, but an acceptable option to solve the problem.
After the development of alternatives to solutions, the stage of approval of the solution follows. It is the organization, and not the leader, that must accept them in a complex, and the best way is to attract relevant workers to participate in the coordination.
Next, we should organize the implementation of measures to solve the problem. After all, only the correct organization and control of actions, bringing to the knowledge of each employee involved in his duties, will lead to a positive result - solving the problem as part of a management decision-making strategy.