Solid waste management is considered one of the critical environmental issues. The current system for handling them in our country developed back in Soviet times. The main method by which solid household waste is being disposed of is landfill. At first glance, it is the cheapest, but when calculating it is often forgotten to take into account that in addition to the costs of maintaining the site, expenses are required for decommissioning, compensation for environmental damage and irretrievable loss of resources.
As an alternative, in some cities, solid waste is disposed of by burning it at specialized incinerators. However, this method has several disadvantages, one of which is that the MRZ is a source of air pollution and the surrounding area. However, for justice it is worth noting that there are combustion technologies that minimize the formation of dioxins. In addition, as a result of this method, the volume of waste is reduced tenfold and it is possible to produce heat or electricity, and the resulting slag can be recycled to industry.
Municipal solid waste is also disposed of through aerobic biothermal composting. Before this, they are sorted. Everything that is formed as a result of consumption can be divided into three main groups. The first is secondary raw materials (MSW), which can be processed into useful materials and obtained through their sale a certain income, allowing to offset costs. The second is biodegradable waste, it can be turned into compost, however, the costs associated with this are difficult to compensate for. Third - non-recyclable solid waste, the disposal of solid waste of this group is carried out in various ways, depending on their specific composition.
Aerobic biothermal composting is today considered the most promising technology. With the help of it, solid waste are transferred to a harmless state and become compost, which is a fertilizer that contains trace elements, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium. Such disposal of solid waste allows you to return it back to the natural cycle of substances in nature.
The use of mass processing of solid waste using the latter method is difficult today for several reasons: the imperfection of the legislation, the lack of a single information base for all types of solid waste, poor monitoring of compliance with regulations, and insufficient funding. If we turn to the experience of developed countries, it becomes clear that it is possible to properly manage waste
only if we approach this issue systematically. You should configure and debug all processes related to garbage disposal. It is necessary to cover everything in the complex, including sources of garbage (organizations and people), transportation, storage, sorting, recycling, final disposal. The public and each individual citizen should be actively involved in solving this problem. And most importantly, an effective mechanism of economic stimulation of a rational and careful attitude to what nature has given us is needed.