Each of us daily notices hair loss. However, if hair falls out in large quantities, then this is an alarming signal about a possible serious illness - diffuse alopecia. What is the reason for sudden hair loss, how to properly treat, how terrible are the complications? There are many questions, we will understand each of them.
Diffuse alopecia is one of the most common forms of baldness. In this case, mainly women aged 35 to 50 years are subject to pathological changes.
Of course, a small amount of hair loss (almost imperceptible) is quite normal. Hair reaches a certain phase of development, after which it falls out, and a new one grows in its place. From one follicle up to 20 hairs can grow. And the "life" of one lasts about 6 years. So, a person loses up to 100 hairs per day - this indicator is considered the norm.
Alopecia is considered diffuse if a person loses more than 150 hairs within 24 hours. In advanced cases, the indicator increases by 6.5 times - about 1000 hairs.
Diffuse alopecia, unlike other types of baldness, affects the parting area, and in the future, the whole head lends itself to pathological changes.
With this disease, a hair falls out with the bulb. And in the remaining strands, diseased follicles are observed. Accordingly, baldness gradually begins to appear. Moreover, cosmetic intervention in the form of using another shampoo or hair balm, including hair dye, can lead to profuse loss.
Classification of diffuse alopecia
Alopecia has two forms of manifestation: telogen and anagen.
Telogen hair loss is a separate form of baldness in which there is increased hair loss in a certain time period. With this form of the disease, the hair follicle very quickly passes from the growth stage to rest, respectively, the follicle is in the so-called delay mode. The core of each curl is strongly separated from the root and gradually drops out.
At the stage of development of anagen alopecia, a sudden simultaneous loss of curls occurs throughout the head. This mainly occurs due to the use of potent medications, as well as after radiation and after exceeding the intake of vitamin A of the group A. Such negative effects affect the hair shaft, it decreases and cannot fully form.
Most often, the development of this form of alopecia in a person is observed if he has problems with the thyroid gland or with a violation of the daily regimen and habitual food intake.
Causes of the disease
There is a fairly extensive series of negative factors, as a result of which diffuse alopecia can develop. Causes:
- Diseases associated with the introduction of an infection or virus into the body. So, weakening of hair strength is observed against the background of such diseases: malaria, flu, pneumonia, tuberculosis, syphilis, HIV infection, etc.
- Due to the wrong diet of the day. Often there is diffuse alopecia in women who keep themselves on strict diets. Accordingly, trace elements and proteins necessary for the body do not enter the body, and hair is a reflection of our state of health.
- During the violation of our mental and psychological state. Stresses, depressions always have an effect on all systems of our body. Subjected to "suffering" and hair follicles.
- A large number of female pattern baldness was recorded during the Great Patriotic War. Also, a sharp hair loss can be observed after severe stress or after an accident.
- After anesthesia or surgery.
- In chronic diseases: lupus, erythroderma, psoriasis, as well as a number of pathologies associated with problems of the endocrine system.
- Diffuse alopecia can begin to develop with a breakdown and severe fatigue.
- With injuries to the skin, head.
- The disease develops as a result of taking high-dose medications.
In medicine, there are some cases in which it is impossible to establish the cause of hair loss. In this case, doctors suspect idiopathic alopecia. However, this is quite rare.
With the development of this disease, partial or complete baldness occurs, regardless of the gender and age of the person.
Diffuse alopecia in women initially appears as a small strip at the parting. The process of baldness begins in the Temechka zone on the head. With untimely intervention of a doctor, it will be very difficult to stop the process of baldness. The advanced stage of the disease resembles a transparent dandelion with single hairs sticking out in different directions. During hormonal changes in the body of a woman, not only hair falls out, but the timbre of the voice also changes, the level of hairiness of the hands and face increases, and in some cases, the gait can also change.
Diffuse alopecia in men is more common than in women. Moreover, baldness is localized throughout the head, unevenly. Literally in a short period of time, a man can completely lose all his hair. Diffuse alopecia (photo below) starts from the parietal part of the head, after which it gradually affects the temporal lobe.
It should be noted that the strand is completely changeable: it changes its structure and becomes brittle.
In children, this disease is much less common than in adults. Moreover, the first symptoms are difficult to identify in a child up to 1 year old, since the hair is thin and does not cover the entire head.
First signs of the disease
Most patients develop a telogen form of alopecia. The first alarm is the abundance of hair on the comb. Also, for this disease, such first symptomatic signs are characteristic:
- with the progression of the disease, the parting becomes noticeably wider;
- hair looks unhealthy (dull appearance and fragility appears);
- straight hair takes on a wavy shape, and curls straighten;
- the accompanying symptoms of anemia (increased fatigue, weakness in the body and constant drowsiness);
- violation of the sebaceous glands on the head.
There are also signs of thinning hair on the eyebrows and eyelashes.
An experienced doctor can recognize this disease by visual inspection, and also taking into account the remaining hair on the comb. Accordingly, to make an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo a trichonogram of the head. It must be done on the 5th day after washing the hair. Sometimes a trichologist directs the patient to donate blood to hormones (DHT).
“Not a sentence!”, The doctors will say to a patient who develops diffuse alopecia. Treatment should be comprehensive and have the following goals:
- stop the loss of curls;
- strengthen the immune system and the patient’s body as a whole;
- destroy toxins in the tissues and other organs of the patient;
- eliminate the lack of vitamins and essential trace elements.
Each treatment requires the proper implementation of all the recommendations of the doctor and time to restore the normal condition of the hair.
There are a lot of medications, the action of which is aimed at strengthening the hair follicles, as well as improving their structure. Usually, the doctor recommends drinking a multicomponent vitamin complex, which helps strengthen the body as a whole. The list of the most effective vitamin supplements:
- "Fitoval" - if diffuse alopecia develops in women, treatment necessarily includes this drug. Its composition is based on biotin, vitamin B and amino acids. Usually, the doctor prescribes this drug if the reasons for the development of the disease lie in nervous strain or stress.
- "Rinfoltil" - in this preparation contains a sufficiently large amount of the necessary useful trace elements and amino acids. Its action is to stimulate the awakening of "sleeping" follicles.
However, do not self-medicate. The necessary drugs should be prescribed by the doctor based on the tests received.
Another effective procedure that a doctor can offer is darsonvalization or electrophoresis. However, the first procedure is contraindicated if the patient has dry scalp. During the application of the second method, a drug solution is injected under the scalp. It is unacceptable to use it if there are abrasions or scratches on the treated area of the head.
Another way is available - laser therapy. Thanks to its infrared radiation, not only the scalp, but also the blood vessels are exposed to beneficial effects. A full course of treatment involves 10 procedures.
As an additional method, doctors recommend signing up for a collar and head massage.
The doctor uses this traditional and obligatory method to awaken and stimulate the growth of hair follicles. Proven and most effective drugs:
- "Minoxidin". The course of treatment is 1 year.
- "Finasteride" - a drug intended for use exclusively by men.
- "Esvicide" is presented in the form of a clear liquid, which contains enzymes, biostimulants and vitamins. It is applied externally.
- "Cromacline" - this drug stimulates the process of cell synthesis and favorably affects the state of hair follicles.
You cannot prescribe drugs to yourself. Take medication only after prescribing a doctor.
There are several alternative methods for strengthening hair follicles if the patient is actively developing diffuse alopecia. Treatment, reviews of which are almost always positive, involves the use of various masks that contain irritating components. The most popular folk recipes include such components:
- mustard powder;
- Red pepper;
- Castor oil;
Depending on the specific recipe, you can add homemade products that are always at hand. We should not forget about the healing properties of such plants: nettle, coltsfoot, burdock. It is recommended to use ordinary table salt for this disease. Due to its properties, blood circulation is stimulated and hair growth is accelerated if there is a disease such as diffuse alopecia in women. Reviews on the beneficial effects of salt on the scalp leave many women. The effect is noticeable. Fine salt must be rubbed into the scalp 15 minutes before washing. This procedure can be done every time only if there is no characteristic damage to the scalp.
Hair loss entails the development of many diseases, diffuse alopecia develops. Reviews of many patients who were able to defeat this disease suggest that:
- It is necessary to adhere to the correct diet. The daily diet must be filled with such products: fresh vegetables and fruits, milk, carbohydrate-containing products.
- It is important to remember about the drinking regimen. So, an adult healthy person needs to use 1.5 liters of clean water every day. It is recommended that coffee, black tea be replaced with green, as the latter helps strengthen the hair follicles and tones the whole body.
- You need to limit yourself in the use of spicy dishes, fast food, alcohol, sweets and carbonated drinks.
When adjusting the diet of the day and regimen, the first results can be noticed literally in a month.
What can be the complications
The worst consequences are almost complete baldness. Due to the loss of a large number of hair, the skull is completely exposed, this can affect a person’s mental and psychological health.
Even if the course of treatment is successfully completed, relapse may occur, and more than once. Hair transplant surgery may be needed .
That is why it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor in order to begin to fight the disease at the initial stage. Be healthy!