To maintain the right conditions in the steam room, you need to correctly calculate the productivity of the furnace. But she will not be able to generate the required amount of heat if the stones are incorrectly selected for her. It is also important to know how to put them correctly inside the heater. This is a responsible job, during which many make mistakes. To prevent this from happening, it will be further discussed in detail how to put stones in a bath stove, as well as what material is suitable for this.
How to choose stones?
What stones to put in a bath stove? To make the right choice, you need to consider several tips from professionals. It is worth noting that not all stones are suitable for such purposes. The material must have high thermal conductivity, as well as be environmentally friendly. Stones should not emit substances harmful to human health when heated. Therefore, it is worth purchasing material only at specialized retail outlets that have a good reputation.
It is not necessary to use natural stones of unknown origin for these purposes, since not all breeds are safe for humans. Some stones do not give off heat well, which is unacceptable for a furnace in a steam room. In the store you need to ask for the necessary information about decorative stones. They should have the following characteristics:
- Heat capacity. This is the ability of a stone to accumulate heat, and then gradually give it away. This allows you to maintain high temperature indoors.
- Heat resistance. An indicator that characterizes the limit temperature threshold that a stone can withstand.
- Security. Stones should not emit harmful components into the environment.
- Expansion rate during heating. This rate should be very low. Otherwise, the stone will crumble with increasing temperature.
Before you consider how to properly stack the stones in a bath stove, you need to pay attention to the selection of suitable rocks.
Varieties of stones
Stacking stones in a sauna stove is an important undertaking. Its consideration should begin with the main points in choosing rocks suitable for operation at high temperatures. The following types of stones are suitable for a bath stove:
It is a semi-precious stone. Its properties are fully consistent with the requirements of furnaces for steam. It is a strong mineral that does not absorb water, having durability and high heat transfer.
This is one of the best materials for the furnace in the steam room. He is able not only to accumulate heat, but also to distribute it evenly in the room. In this case, the bath is warming up gradually, and the heat remains for a long time in the steam room. The heating limit for this stone is 1,600 º
This is a very strong and therefore durable stone. It is often used to equip bath stoves. Basalt does not crumble; it maintains its integrity for a long time. It perfectly stores heat, which ensures the maintenance of high temperature in the steam room for a long time.
This stone is a whole set of minerals. Having a volcanic origin, it withstands high temperatures. At the same time, all components are safe for humans, which makes the mineral especially valuable for use in the steam room.
The composition of this rock includes 90% quartzite. This mineral is quickly heated, but it must be used in combination with other stones.
The composition includes olivine and pyroxene, so the mineral is safe for people. The stone withstands great heat, as it is a volcanic rock.
The mineral consists mainly of chromium, which is a safe substance for humans. As a result of heating, the structure of the stone does not expand. It is very tight and heavy.
When laying stones in a bath furnace, the use of such rocks as granite, spar, mica, electrophore, quartz, pyrite, marble, flint, limestone should be avoided.
When choosing stones, the type of stove must be taken into account. It can be wood, open or electric. Its size is also noticeably different. For example, when considering how to stack stones in a Vesuvius bath stove (this is one of the most popular models), it is worth noting that the dimensions of the fraction will be different. Stacking of stones of different sizes is welcome. Moreover, the rock must be mixed. This will also have a positive effect on the operation of the furnace.
When laying stones in a Vesuvius bathhouse or other similar design, it is necessary to select a fraction from 6 to 20 cm in diameter. This principle applies to most open and wood-burning stoves.
Only large stones are placed in a closed Russian stove. There should be enough free space between them. Too dense masonry will not allow steam to be generated. Therefore, for this type of heater, a large fraction is needed.
If the furnace is small, with electric heating elements, you need to choose stones with a diameter of 5-8 cm. They should pass between the heating elements, but not damage them when heated. Therefore, small pebbles will fill the space inside a small electric furnace.
Why are rocks mixed?
When considering how to lay stones in a sauna stove, open or closed heater, you need to pay attention to one nuance. Often, mineral rocks are mixed, as this saves the family budget. It is quite difficult to fill a spacious stove with completely expensive rocks. Therefore, they are diluted with cheaper minerals. You can stack stones mixed or in layers.
Stones that heat faster are laid down. Other types of minerals are laid out on top.
The stones are also mixed in order to create an aesthetic appearance of the furnace. Simple, cheaper varieties of minerals are laid down. On top lay beautiful reddish, greenish stones in saturated colors.
It is also worth considering that the amount of steam that the furnace produces depends on the shape. It is necessary to take into account the order of laying the stone in the bath stove. Chipped and tacked shapes are best suited for a steam room. The first of these varieties has a large area. However, this is also a disadvantage, since such stones are covered with cracks due to insufficient strength.
Galtovannye stones are durable, since during their processing fragile specimens are eliminated. In terms of area, these stones are not inferior to crushed minerals, but their cost is an order of magnitude higher. Therefore, such rocks are laid down, where the temperature is higher. Cheap chipped stones can be laid on top. Moreover, the appearance of such minerals is quite beautiful.
The first way of laying
Considering the procedure for laying stones in a bath stove, it is worth noting that there are two ways. The first approach is used for open heaters. In this case, the harmful gases that are released during combustion will not exit the stove into the room. Heating will occur due to the sufficient temperature of the walls of the furnace. Soot and soot will not settle on the stone backfill. Their particles will not appear in the steam bath.
Open heaters take longer to heat up than closed varieties. Therefore, kindling will require more firewood. Therefore, such a system can be considered uneconomical. But with electric heating, it is impossible to heat the room without an open heater design.
In open types of constructions, for example, in the Finnish sauna, with the correct laying of stones in the sauna stove, it turns out to create mineral walls around the heating element. They accumulate thermal energy, and then evenly give it to the surrounding space. Since the stones are tight, no steam is released. This allows you to increase the temperature inside the steam room, but the air remains dry.
Stones can also be placed around the boiler with water. They can be quite large. In this case, it will be possible to scoop up heated water and pour stones over it. So it turns out to heat the bath in black. There will be a lot of steam in this case. By covering the heating element with stones, you can create high-quality heating indoors.
The second way of laying
Considering how to properly stack the stones in the bath stove, it is worth considering a different way. It is more complicated than the previous one, as it requires a more careful selection of elements. This method is called closed, since the stones are on the way out of the smoke oven. They are very hot.
In the course of bathing procedures, water is poured onto hot stones. It evaporates instantly. Therefore, the steam room is filled with dry steam. If during the pouring of water on the stones a characteristic cotton is heard, then the stove is very well heated.
With closed filling, the stones are located above the firebox. They are laid out on a cast iron grate. Instead, a brick arch with slots may be provided in the design. The lower layer of stones is heated to 1100 º. The top layer is a little colder. Here the temperature reaches a maximum of 600 º.
With this method of laying, the stones accumulate heat well and retain it for a long time. But this is not so easy to achieve. You need to know how to properly lay each layer of stone filler. This is a whole science. But with a careful selection of all the elements of the backfill, significant results can be achieved.
Proper installation in a closed heater
Not every builder knows how to lay stones in a bath stove. This is a whole science, which can be mastered without difficulty. Between the stones when arranging a closed furnace, gaps must be left. In this case, during operation of the furnace, each backfill element will warm up evenly. Round stones are more suitable for this type of laying. In this case, free space will appear in any case, it will be almost impossible to make a mistake.
There should be no grooves or cracks on any backfill element. Otherwise, the stones will crack, crumble and clog the channels. This will negatively affect the operation of the furnace.
Before laying, the stones are sorted by size. Large specimens are laid down, and small ones up. When heated, all stones expand. This is inevitable and will eventually lead to the destruction of the walls of the furnace. Therefore, it must be checked and repaired at regular intervals.
If the stones are stacked tightly, they will expand even more when the walls expand. Therefore, such filling is strictly prohibited. Otherwise, the furnace quickly deforms and ceases to fulfill the functions assigned to it.
Some recommendations of experts
Professionals give some tips on how to put stones in a bath stove. They recommend rinsing all stones before laying. Often, marine or river varieties of materials are used for this. If the rounded stone has a blue tint, it is not suitable for use in a furnace. Such pebbles will fade, releasing carbon monoxide into the steam room.
After sorting through the stones, sorting and cleaning them, you can start laying. It is necessary to lay out the largest backfill elements. They should be directed to a heated surface with a narrow edge. So the stone will warm up quickly. In addition, a similar position of pebbles will not allow reflecting thermal energy back into the furnace, it will easily move up.
The number of stones is calculated in accordance with the dimensions of the room. For a cubic meter of space, a steam room needs from 35 to 45 kg of stones. This indicator depends on their thermal conductivity and ability to accumulate thermal energy.
Long stones cannot be laid horizontally. Their arrangement should be exclusively vertical. Otherwise, the heating will not be able to rise up. You can also lay stones on your side.
At sharp angles, the stones should be directed towards the furnace, and flat - towards the walls of the stove. This allows you to accumulate enough thermal energy so that the desired temperature is maintained for a long time in the steam room.
Having studied how to put stones in a bath stove, you need to pay attention to the issues of their operation. Over time, the backfill needs to be changed. It is recommended to completely change the stones every 3-4 years. This is due to the accumulation of soot and toxins on the surfaces of the backfill elements. Due to expansion and contraction during heating and cooling, even strong stones begin to become cracked and crumble. Clogging the channels, they reduce the efficiency of heating.
For the stones to last longer, do not pour them with cold water. Also, they should not be allowed to come into contact with open fire.
Carrying out the maintenance procedure, you can leave whole stones. They are cleaned and washed in cold water. This must be done if the stove has become poorly heated, does not hold heat. Most often you have to change the backfill completely. After a certain period of use, the stones burn out, they are called "dead". The breed loses its ability to accumulate heat. The smaller the stones, the faster they will need to be replaced.