The abbreviation of NGOs is very widespread. However, it is sometimes difficult to decipher due to the fact that several items may be hidden under it. Our article will help you decide on them.
So, NGOs are:
- non-governmental (public) organization;
- research and production organization;
- initial vocational education;
- private pension provision;
- unidentified floating object;
- "Quaker" -1 - nightly passive glasses used in the armed forces of the USSR;
- NPO is the Dutch authority for local radio and television broadcasting.
Thus, the decoding of the abbreviation is directly influenced by the context. And our first two items are most relevant to our topic - we will consider them in detail.
Research and Production Union
In this case, an NGO is an organization that is engaged in both scientific development and their implementation: use in production, subsequent release and sale of products. These include:
- pilot production;
- industrial enterprises;
- design and engineering bureaus;
- technological associations;
- research institutes.
A scientific and production union can be of any legal type: LLC NGO, PAO NGO, ZAO NPO, etc.
In this context, it is a legal entity that could be created by both public founders and private individuals without any help and participation of government (otherwise - public) institutions, conducting its work entirely with its own money and in accordance with the adopted charter. Various forms come from here - LLC, CJSC, PJSC (formerly OJSC) NGOs. Sources of own funds - contributions from participants, donations from philanthropists, grants, the performance of certain works within their competence, etc.
NGOs are national and international forms. The latter have a slightly different definition from the above. An INGO is created on the basis of an intergovernmental agreement also by private or legal entities and other national or international (M) NGOs. Its main goal is to promote the scientific, technical, economic, political, cultural, humanitarian dialogue of different countries. Its recognition is distinguished by at least one state, the presence of consultative status with an intergovernmental organization. With other international institutions, it is united by the following:
- regular activities;
- presence of constituent documentation;
- the main method of work is multilateral negotiations;
- nature of decisions - recommendatory, adopted by general vote or consensus.
The essence of NGOs fits into several points:
- The organization’s activities are purely voluntary (for participants and NGO management).
- Functioning on the basis of self-government.
- Do not include political associations.
- Their main goal cannot be profit.
The main tasks of non-governmental organizations
Four main tasks of non-governmental organizations can be distinguished:
- The free conduct of the necessary research and the conduct of propaganda - even if it goes against the opinion of the government of a particular state.
- If any candidate for a mandate to the representative government openly publishes his position, an NGO can freely support it.
- Without special permission to engage in any economic, commercial or business activities that generate income. Moreover, it must be licensed and in accordance with the standards introduced by the state.
- Achieve your goals by membership in international organizations, participation in conferences of both national and world level.
Signs of non-governmental organizations
Non-governmental organization (NGO) - this is consistent with a number of signs:
- Both national and international level.
- Refusal to use and promote violent methods.
- Work both on a legal basis and on an informal basis.
- Participation in political activity is carried out without the goal of gaining power.
- It is based on self-government.
- Created on a voluntary basis.
- State bodies cannot be its founders or members.
- The organization is not characterized by such a goal as income generation.
NGOs are also various types of non-governmental associations. We give their classification:
- By type of financing: external and own sources.
- By type of activity.
- By the nature of the target audience - categories of citizens on whom the activity is directed.
- Organizational form: fund, public organization.
- By region of operation: international, state, regional.
Here are examples of well-known to many organizations that are essentially (M) NGOs:
- Association of International Law.
- Organization "Doctors Without Borders".
- Amnesty International.
- "Club of Rome".
- "Reporters Without Borders."
- "Helsinki groups".
NGO is an abbreviation with a lot of interpretations. The most common is a non-governmental association. In addition, there may be LLC, PAO, ZAO NGO.