Throughout life, the barometer of family well-being fluctuates extremely unevenly. Still would! Is there anything more unstable than human relationships? It seems that only yesterday, the pair was dominated by love, respect, passion, and today - indifference, hatred and mutual desire to disperse. The topic of the article is the statistics of divorces and their main reasons.
A bit of history
The institution of the family was considered unshakable before the revolution:
- The way of life was such that a woman could not do without physical and financial support from the man.
- The main source of income was land and its bowels. None of the spouses expressed a desire to leave the acquired over the years of the family.
- The real stronghold of the cell of society was the church, whose influence in those years can hardly be overestimated.
The statistics of divorces in Russia was such that for the whole of 1880, for example, only 920 marriage unions were dissolved, and for 1890, 942. Everything changed after the revolutionary events in the country.
The most liberal divorce laws in the world have been passed. Since 1926, the spouses did not even need to go to court, because it was enough for one of them to appear in the registry office. What are the statistics of divorces in that period? Instantly, Russia became the world leader in this indicator. But after huge human losses during the Great Patriotic War, the legislation changed. And since 1944, the divorce procedure has been tightened, after which in 1950 12 marriages were made for every thousand people and only 0.5 families split up.
In the Soviet period, the Communist Party can be called a strengthening factor in the family. Fear of publicity and exclusion from its ranks forced the party members not to think about a divorce. Although in 1990 the indicators could no longer please: the number of marriage unions decreased (8.9 per thousand people), and divorces increased (3.8 per thousand). The spirit of democracy has largely changed the attitude towards the institution of marriage.
Family Institute Crisis
The situation at the present stage of development of society, many scientists and politicians call the crisis. This is evidenced by the growth of orphans and single-parent families, the rejection of young people from the official registration of marriage, the emergence of same-sex unions. The main unit of society ceases to fulfill its most important functions, among which the main ones are the birth, upbringing and primary socialization of children. The number of nuclear (childless) and small (with one child) families is growing. Legislation provides complete freedom both in registration and in the termination of marriage unions.
The ideology of the United Nations today is based on the fact that relevant legislation and policies that contribute to strengthening the family should become priority areas of activity for both national governments and intergovernmental organizations.
The family crisis is also confirmed by the statistics of divorces. We will dwell on these indicators in more detail.
In which countries are most often bred
The highest values of the divorce rate (the ratio of their number to the number of marriages) have the following states:
- Belgium. Record country. The divorce rate here is 71%, which sociologists associate with the most developed system of state support for citizens.
- Portugal, with its 68%, ranks second in divorce rates. One reason is the low birth rate.
- Belarus. It can also be put in second place, like Portugal. They have the same percentage - 68. And the reasons for such a high rate include the mass withdrawal of the population from faith in God.
- Hungary. Scientists sounded the alarm back in 2010, when the European country first entered the top three. According to statistics, 67% of marriages result in a breakup. This is associated with the ease of divorce proceedings.
- Czech. An example of how financial independence of spouses can affect the divorce rate. Back in 1960, it was 16%, and today it is 66%.
- USA. What are the stats here? The number of divorces is growing inexorably, and the ratio is 53%. It is very difficult to talk about stability in a state where the population is forced to fight for their financial well-being.
- Sweden. Here the ratio is 47%. And these high rates are associated not only with the simplification of the registration of a divorce since 1974, but also with a powerful system of state support for mothers raising children.
- Ukraine. In this country, the indicator of interest to us is 42%. In addition to the simplified system of divorces, the small size of alimony also affects the coefficient.
- Maldives. One of the smallest states in terms of population, where divorces are the norm.
In Russia, unfortunately, the ratio is 57%, which means that every second couple submits documents for divorce.
Reasons for divorce in Russia
Statistics can give an answer to this question only according to the results of social surveys, because according to the legislation, since 1996, the motives for family breakdown in courts have not been established. What do the studies of sociologists show? What reasons do divorced people call themselves?
- In the first place respondents put haste and rashness of marriage - 40%.
- Cheating on spouses is called 20% of respondents.
- Different life positions indicated 13%.
- Alcohol or drug addiction is considered the cause of family breakdown by 7% of citizens.
- 5% of respondents named sexual dissatisfaction.
- Other causes were 15%.
Paradoxically, among the last fifteen percent, problems associated with social networks are leading. So, the Psychoanalytic Center of St. Petersburg predicts that the breakdown in relations due to Internet addiction will only grow over the years. Other sources give a different gradation of reasons. One of the options can be seen in the graph presented in the article.
Reasons for Divorce in the World
Studies in other countries highlight three main blocks of family breakdown:
- Adultery or the actual creation of a new relationship.
- Sexual problems.
So, in Europe, due to the growth of wealth, marriage ceases to be an economic pillar, and the union of loving people does not necessarily need legal registration. Divorce statistics show:
- Being alone is sometimes more economically beneficial. Especially if one of the partners is addicted to alcohol, drugs or games.
- Cases of infertility or unwillingness to have children as one of the partners have become more frequent.
- The number of homosexual relationships is increasing.
It is curious that in a country like Spain, the problem of adultery is in the first place. This nation is often called one of the most infidels. And in the United States, there is currently a rethinking of Puritan values, so in this country a high divorce rate is due to the desire to receive maximum pleasure from married life. Here the percentage of divorces of the second and third marriages is high, which is not observed anywhere else in the world.
The percentage of divorces in Russia, the statistics of which are considered in the article, is directly related to the duration of the marriage. Any family goes through several stages in its development. The transition to a new level of relations is often accompanied by crises, which are considered an explosive age for the cell of society. It is at such moments that there is a risk of its collapse. Psychologists distinguish the following crisis periods:
- The beginning of the existence of the family, when people assume marital obligations. From the role of “son”, for example, there is a transition to the role of “husband”. A “rejection” of the parental family is carried out, new, own family values are created.
- The birth of the first-born, which entails the development of adult parental roles and the acceptance of the fact of the appearance of another family member.
- Admission of the kid to school, which is a kind of test for the correctness of his education in the family.
- The child enters adolescence. This requires a restructuring of the parents' attitude towards him: weakening control and strengthening trust.
- The departure of children from the family, the acquisition of a new meaning of existence, a return to the main roles of “wife” and “husband”.
Duration of marriage and divorce
Statistics of the causes of divorces that lie in this plane are presented in the table below. So, what is the dependence of family breakdown on the number of years lived?
|Up to a year||1-2 years||3-4 years||5-9 years old||10-19 years old||more than 19 years|
|3.6%||16 %||18 %||28%||22%||12.4%|
From the table it follows that the peak of parting falls on 5-9 years of marriage. This can be associated with the extinction of feelings. The loss of love makes people less tolerant, in addition, many want to relive the ardor of love passion, creating a new relationship.
The ratio of marriages and their divorces
It is very important to understand what is the trend in our country. Is marriage a priority for most people? This will help to find out the statistics of marriage and divorce in Russia. Consider the proposed schedule.
And compare the performance of 1950 and 2015. Over 65 years, the absolute number of marriages has declined. If there were 12 per thousand people, then 7.9 began to be concluded. The decrease was 34%. But the number of divorces has increased: from 0.5 (one person per 2000) to 4.2. Percentage increase is impressive: 840!
What explains the decline in marriage?
Marriage and divorce statistics show three important areas of modern society:
- Reducing the number of registered unions in favor of the so-called civil.
- Refusal of part of the population of fertile age from creating a family.
- Raising the age at which men and women enter into formal relationships (the graph is presented below).
In 1993, the Center for Human Values conducted a survey in which respondents were asked: "What is the greatest life value for you?" Already at the end of the last century, only 53% of respondents named family among their priorities.
This explains the decrease in the number of marriages and the increase in divorces, but does this statistics in Russia have regional characteristics?
Inequality of statistical indicators in the country
Consider the quantitative indicators in absolute numbers. So, in 2013 there were registered marriages - 1,225,501. And the number of divorces was 667,971. In 2014, the number of marriages was almost unchanged - 1,225,985, but divorces increased to 697,370.
Our country is multinational and multiconfessional, therefore it is important to understand how the statistics of divorces in Russia vary depending on the regions. Studies have shown that most of the breakdowns of families are noted in two areas - Magadan and Leningrad. For a thousand newly-married marriages, there are 772 divorces.
Significantly better indicators in the autonomous republics, among which are Udmurtia, Mari El, Chuvashia and Mordovia. Family values here are quite high, so the percentage of terminations is much lower, but also within 50.
The North Caucasian republics significantly improve the picture. What are the divorce ratios?
- In Dagestan - 25.1%.
- In Ingushetia - 18.2%.
- In Chechnya - 14.2%.
Directly associating this with the Muslim religion would be wrong, since in Tatarstan, for example, the coefficient is 64.5%. We can talk more about economic factors and the dependent position of women in these regions.
In a number of European countries, the divorce rate is very low, which has its own reasons. Among the prosperous countries are:
- Ireland (15%);
- Italy (25%);
- Greece (25%);
- Poland (27%);
- as well as Romania (28%).
The situation is largely due to economic reasons and the difficulties that are created at the legislative level to tighten the divorce process.
So, in Italy, a long separate separation of spouses is required to verify their decision. After the divorce, child support is paid not only to the children, but also to the wife. Until the moment she again creates a family.
The statistics of divorces in the world allows us to name the countries where the institution of the family is most stable. These are the states of the East, Asia and South America. Among them:
- Japan (36%);
- Israel (28%);
- Singapore (28%);
- Brazil (21%);
- China (22%);
- Egypt (17%).
The strongest marriages are in Syria (9%), Vietnam (4%) and Chile (3%).
The percentage of divorce statistics shows, as already mentioned, that Russia is among the ten countries with the highest level of family breakdown (57%). This is due both to liberal legislation and to the equal rights of men and women in marriage.
There are no difficulties to conclude and terminate the official union. Possible recognition of paternity outside of marriage. There is no strict control over the observance of maintenance obligations by the state, which facilitates the decision to leave. With financial independence, the feelings of partners come to the fore, which, alas, is not a guarantee of stability of relations.