Any type of industrial activity needs competent construction of the production process, which is understood as the procedure for transforming the subject of labor (raw materials, materials, semi-finished products) into finished products needed by society.
The organization of the production process involves a rational combination of its elements: labor (human activities), means of labor (production tools), natural processes (chemical, physical, biological), aimed at changing the properties of the object of labor - its shape, size, quality or condition.
The principles of rational organization of the production process.
Existing production processes are extremely diverse, however, their proper organization is based on certain principles, following which allows optimizing industrial activity.
The principle of differentiation. In accordance with this principle, the organization of the production process should be carried out in such a way that specific processes or operations that form the basis of the production canvas are assigned to individual divisions of the enterprise.
The principle of combination. It involves the union of all or some operations of a different nature within the same production unit (workshop, section, link).
At first glance, these principles contradict each other. Which one should be preferred, determines the complexity of the product and practicality.
The principle of concentration. This principle means the unification within the same production site of work on the production of homogeneous products or the implementation of the same operations. Its application allows more efficient use of equipment of one type (its load increases), increasing the flexibility of technological processes.
The principle of specialization. It implies the assignment to each work site of a precisely limited number of operations, works, products. The level of specialization is determined by the nature of the manufactured parts, as well as the quantitative volume of their production. The higher the level of specialization of the enterprise, the better the skills of workers, higher labor productivity. At the same time, the possibility of automation of production increases and the costs associated with the readjustment of equipment are reduced. The disadvantage is the monotony of labor and the rapid fatigue of people.
The principle of universalization is the opposite of the principle of specialization. Organization of the production process, based on this principle, involves the release of a variety of products (or the implementation of heterogeneous processes) within the same working unit. The production of a wide range of parts requires a sufficiently high qualification of personnel and the participation of multifunctional equipment.
The principle of proportionality. Proper management of the production process is inseparable from maintaining proportions between the amount of products manufactured by various departments of the enterprise. The production capacities of the plots should correspond to the load of equipment and be comparable with each other.
The principle of parallelism. It involves the simultaneous manufacture (processing) of various products, which saves time spent on the production of the final product.
The directivity principle. The organization of the production process should be made in such a way that the path of the subject of labor from one stage of processing to another is the shortest.
The principle of rhythm is that all production processes aimed at the production of intermediate parts and the manufacture of the final product are subject to periodic repetition. Following this principle allows you to ensure an even flow of production, free from violation of deadlines and forced downtime.
The principle of continuity assumes a uniform supply of the subject of labor from one operation to another without stops or delays.
The principle of flexibility provides quick adaptation of production sites to changes in the realities of production associated with the transition to the manufacture of new types of products.
The listed principles in the organization of production are applied in accordance with their practical expediency. Underestimating their role leads to an increase in production costs and, as a consequence, to a decrease in the competitiveness of products.