The technology of manufacturing lighting products not so long ago opened for consumers a new type of device based on diode elements. In the market, they are known as led lights. The active distribution of these devices has replaced both luminescent and halogen analogues, not to mention traditional incandescent lamps. And there is an explanation for this, since LED lamps were initially positioned as devices with a high working life and unrivaled lighting quality. This is true, but LED devices are not immune to breakdowns, which are sometimes not so easy to fix.
LED fixture design
To understand what elements you have to deal with during the repair process, you need to familiarize yourself with the internal filling of the fixtures. Obviously, high performance has become possible due to the manufacturability of the product. So, the device of LED lamps is:
- case (usually with a unique design and design);
- driver (performs the function of a power converter);
- light source (directly LEDs);
- optical elements.
Now it is worth examining each of the described components in more detail. Everything is clear with the body - it is not of particular interest from the point of view of the functional system of the lamp. The driver acts as a diode power supply, but it does not give out voltage, but direct current. LEDs generate light by converting the power supplied from the driver. Also, the device of LED lamps includes a radiator and optics. The former are used to cool heating LEDs, and lenses with reflectors (secondary optics) convert LED radiation into light that is acceptable for use.
Dismantling the lamp
Not a single repair is complete without this operation, although the procedure may seem exotic for household lighting lamps. There are two approaches to the analysis of LED-lamps. In the first case, a screwdriver is used. If the model has fins for heat removal, then the operation is more likely to succeed - it is enough to find a suitable loophole between the fins and the tool blade to try to separate the case. Since the repair of LED lamps with their own hands does not always involve the replacement of faulty elements, even at the stage of analysis, you should delicately relate to internal components, including the printed circuit board.
The second method of disassembling the lamp is applicable to models with thick glass, which in principle are not suitable for physical manipulations. There is one trick: it is necessary to take a hair dryer and heat the case with it - then the glued glass circle will come out of the cylindrical base without additional effort. The secret is that the thermal effect expands the size of the objects, and the adhesive composition becomes elastic - therefore, under a hot hairdryer, the LED lamps literally crumble.
Power Supply Replacement
Among the common malfunctions in some models of LED lamps, there is a power supply unit in which a capacitor or resistor burns. Attempts to evaluate the operability of a given element by measuring instruments, as a rule, do not give the expected result, since a malfunction is detected only if it is connected to the network.
One way or another, the only way to eliminate the defect is to replace the unit, since the repair of LED lamps may require a full analysis of the board for malfunctions, which is difficult without special equipment.
It is important to consider that in electrical goods stores they are usually not there, so you should immediately go to the points of sale of radio electronics and ask for a power supply for 5W LED-lamps. The following are a few simple manipulations with dismantling the old and installing a new component.
If the LED burns out
If the power supply is working properly, then it makes sense to look for a problem among the LEDs. Before you repair your LED lamps with your own hands by replacing inactive elements, you should check which diode needs updating. To do this, use a 9 V battery and use a resistor (1 kΩ resistance) to check all the diodes one at a time.
When a defect is detected, you need to close its outputs. As a rule, in self-made luminaires, the connection of sources is carried out according to the principle of a chain, so closing one of them will not lead to a loss of function by other elements - their light may be even brighter. At this stage, DIY repair of LED lamps is not possible without a soldering iron. All old diodes are soldered, after which the board is turned over - then new elements are soldered to the contact tracks.
Features of the repair lamp "corn"
In terms of ease of repair, the LL-CORN series models, that is, corn LED lamps, are the most profitable. Diode sources are located directly on the external surface, which allows the master to repair the corn LED lamps without intruding on the internal device. If necessary, the LEDs can be dialed and replaced - the technology is similar to the methods of repairing lamps with other designs. A faulty diode should also be updated or shorted with a special jumper. This will not affect the stability and reliability of the LED device, but in the aesthetic perception the absence of one of the light sources will be noticeable.
This element in itself is the most reliable part of the lamp, so there are cases when the driver was saved, and the rest of the filling, along with the LEDs, was updated. Failures in the boards often arise due to overload of protective equipment and a mismatch in the nominal operating indicators, which over time forces users to repair the LED lamp driver or replace it. It is difficult to identify the specific reasons why the luminaire driver stops working. If we talk about the signs, this is the blinking of the LEDs, that is, they, in principle, are working, and everything is in order with the contacts, but the interaction scheme with the converter itself is incorrect. In such cases, it remains only to replace the driver by buying a new element on the radio market - marking on the board will help you choose the appropriate model.
Lamp improvement during repair
In the fact of repair, good is not enough, but the forced intrusion into the device gives some advantages. Besides the fact that a beginner can learn how to repair an LED lamp without the help of specialists, it makes sense to use this opportunity to improve the quality of the lamp. For example, during repairs it is worth experimenting with LED diodes. Often, boards and the case itself with a heat sink function are not suitable for "native" LEDs - as a result, with a more or less high-quality basis of the device, the light sources do not reach the maximum possible in the radiation characteristics. Therefore, in some cases, it is worth completely updating all the diodes.
The reverse situation is also widespread, when there is no capacitor and rectifier in the base itself. As a rule, Chinese luminaires sin in this defect, in which a series connection of pairs of “oncoming” diodes with a ballast capacitor is realized, which leads to frequent flashing. Of course, the repair of LED lamps will eliminate this flaw, but such revisions of the circuits at home will not ensure the durability of the device, although the quality of lighting will undoubtedly increase.
Despite the obvious advantages of LED lights, manufacturers have not yet worked out many of the technological nuances in the final embodiment of the devices. The complication of the design and internal structure of the lamp has led to the expansion of the list of components susceptible to breakdowns. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the repair of LED lamps with their own hands is significantly different from the restoration of traditional and more familiar lighting sources. The user is required to know some basics of radio engineering, soldering iron handling skills, and all this is often reinforced by the need to purchase expensive drivers and LEDs. One way or another, Led devices in the best versions from branded manufacturers have many advantages for which they can forgive even difficult repairs.