The culture of speech is a relatively young area of the science of language. As an independent section of this teaching, it took shape thanks to the influence of radical social changes that have occurred in our country in recent years. In particular, increased attention to improving the level of speech culture is due to the involvement of the masses in social activities.
How does a person use his speech for communicative purposes? What is he right or wrong? When a person actually does not make mistakes in the formation and use of word forms, in pronunciation, in the construction of sentences, in this case there is a place to be correct speech . But this is not enough. Speech may well be correct, but still bad. In other words, it may not correspond to the conditions and goals of communication. The very concept of good, competent speech includes three main features: accuracy, wealth and expressiveness.
The accuracy of speech is the selection of such words and sentences that are in the best way able to express the content of a statement, reveal its topic, main idea. Rich speech is when a person has an extremely rich vocabulary and skillfully and competently uses it. Expressiveness is usually created by selecting language tools that best match the tasks and communication conditions.
The correctness of speech is nothing more than compliance with the current norms of the Russian literary language. If a person is endowed with correct, good and competent speech, he is able to achieve the highest level of speech culture. That is, he not only does not allow himself to make mistakes, but also knows how to build his own statements in the best way, taking into account the purpose of communication, and also to select the most appropriate words in each individual case and their combinations, taking into account the circumstances.
Correct speech is one of the most important indicators of a person’s cultural level in general. Indeed, in order for an oral presentation to the public to be successful, it must be understandable and expressive, and all this is achieved with a clear and precise pronunciation, correct stress in words, as well as intonation. When there is no correct speech , pronunciation errors greatly distract the listener from the content of the speech, therefore, communication is difficult, and the degree of impact is weakened.
In addition, speech is often spoiled when it is “polluted” with parasitic words or dialectisms. What are these pollutants? Parasite words do not carry any semantic load, that is, if they are completely removed from the sentence, it will not change its meaning at all, but the correctness of speech will increase noticeably. And by ear, speech, devoid of such words, sounds much nicer. What would you think of a man if he wrote his poem like this: “Over the gray-haired plain of the sea, the wind collects clouds, as it were, and in general, a petrel damn proudly flies between the clouds and the sea”? Surely such a poet would hardly be included in the school curriculum.
As for dialectisms, these linguistic features characteristic of individual territories of the country also often interspersed in literary speech. This is a deviation from the norm. Dialectisms are distinguished as follows: phonetic (for example, “yakan” - “five”, “systra”, etc., or at the end of the letter “x” instead of “g” - “sneh”, “lie”, “druh”) ; grammar ("sit", "run", "go home", etc.); derivational (“especially” instead of “especially”, “blueberry” instead of “blueberry”, etc.); lexical (synonyms that correspond to literary ones: “hefty” - “very”, “kochet” - “cock”; synonyms that have a different meaning: “weather” - “bad weather”, “thin” - “bad”, etc. .).
Of course, the use of such words is possible if you need to give your story more color, but their constant use undoubtedly spoils the correctness of speech and can create the impression of a person who does not know enough about the norms of the literary language.