Headaches in adolescents: causes, treatment and prevention

Adolescence is a serious test for children. Their hormonal background begins to change, and while the child’s body is trying to rebuild, various health problems appear periodically. That is why headaches in adolescents are observed quite often.

There can be such a problem for a variety of reasons. It is important to pay attention to it in a timely manner and help the teenager, as this can be a sign of both simple overstrain and serious illnesses.

Main reasons

The causes of headaches in adolescents can be associated both with the influence of external negative factors, and with internal problems. These include, for example:

  • Stress, mental strain, lack of sleep.
  • Improper nutrition.
  • Migraine.
  • Chronic diseases
  • Bad habits.
  • A cold.
Lack of sleep in adolescents

If headaches are often observed in adolescents, then you need to consult a doctor who will help determine the cause of their appearance and select the required treatment.

External causes

In this case, headaches in adolescents arise under the influence of a situation or people and do not depend on their state of health. One such reason is irregular sleep. An excess or deficiency provokes not only the appearance of a headache, but also a deterioration in mental activity.

Due to intense stress, as well as because of emotional overstrain, adolescents are especially urgent in need of a full sleep. Experts recommend sleeping at least 10 hours a day. You need to lie down no later than 22-23 hours, and it is recommended to get up every day at the same time.

Stress and overvoltage

Another cause of headaches in adolescents is stress. It can arise due to conflicts with friends, a heavy load, difficult relationships with teachers and parents. During this period, adolescents experience a stress syndrome, which manifests itself in the form of compressive, aching, throbbing pain.

Unpleasant symptoms go away if you take the pain medication, but this can not eliminate the root cause of the pain. It is important to establish a trusting relationship with your child, communicate as much as possible, and also ask him to share all his experiences. In especially difficult cases, they resort to the help of a psychologist.

Modern adolescents are often influenced by companies, where they often get acquainted with bad habits, namely, smoking, alcohol, drugs. They can provoke the appearance of headaches, nerve pathologies, respiratory diseases, tooth decay, impaired heart function.

Nutrition should be selected, taking into account the peculiarities of the development of a teenager, as this is the key to his good health and normal health. Under the influence of ongoing hormonal fluctuations, the child experiences an increased need for vitamins and minerals. With poor nutrition, as well as the consumption of junk food, headache, discomfort in the digestive system, as well as a breakdown can occur. Adequate fluid intake is also required.

Internal causes

Frequent headaches in a teenager are mainly associated with the occurrence of internal disorders, which include, for example:

  • scoliosis;
  • hypertension;
  • chronic diseases of the ENT organs;
  • heart rhythm disturbance;
  • vision problems;
  • encephalitis;
  • meningitis;
  • vascular diseases.

Scoliosis often begins to develop in adolescence as a result of the fact that active growth of the skeleton begins, and the bones have not yet had time to get stronger. As a result of this, blood circulation worsens and a headache appears.

A provoking factor can be acute and chronic diseases of the ENT organs. Additionally, signs such as:

  • runny nose;
  • a sore throat;
  • temperature rise.

Headaches in adolescents often occur due to increased pressure, which occurs as a result of hormonal changes in the body. In this case, most often it starts to hurt and squeeze the back of the head. Other causes of hypertension are diseases of the kidneys, brain, and adrenal glands. Sometimes the increase in pressure is provoked by the consumption of coffee, a large amount of salt and energy.

Severe headaches in a teenager may be due to meningitis. In this case, additional symptoms that may need to be attributed, such as nausea, fever, skin rashes, may bother. If such signs appear, consult a doctor.


Frequent headaches in a teenager may indicate that he has a migraine. It manifests itself in the form of a pulsation in the frontotemporal part and mainly affects the head on one side only. Usually an attack begins with mild pain, which then gradually intensifies and becomes simply unbearable. Migraine is manifested by such signs as:

  • nausea and vomiting;
  • blurred vision;
  • hypersensitivity to sounds and smells;
  • dizziness;
  • loss of consciousness.
Frequent headaches

There may be other signs, it all depends on the individual characteristics of the body. As a teenager grows up, some signs may disappear, while others may reappear.

Cluster pain

They are characterized by short bouts of severe discomfort that occurs only on one side of the head. The main feature of pain is that it appears suddenly for no apparent reason. The main provoking factor is the consumption of alcohol.

Some doctors associate the appearance of pain with changes in the hypothalamus, and others with bad habits. In order to prevent the occurrence of complications, drug therapy is required, and you also need to be under the constant supervision of a doctor.

When the help of a doctor is required

Frequent headaches in adolescents of 14 years can be a sign of rather serious illnesses and require urgent medical attention. Be sure to consult a doctor if you experience symptoms such as:

  • fever that can not be brought down with antipyretic drugs;
  • coordination and motor function are impaired;
  • it is difficult to raise your head;
  • drowsiness, depression;
  • vomiting
Hazardous conditions

If all these signs appear, you must definitely call for emergency help, since such a condition can be very dangerous.


Adolescent physiology is different from an adult, which is why headaches often occur. If a similar problem is often observed, then you need to see a doctor to diagnose and prescribe treatment. This will prevent the transition of the disease into a chronic form. The main diagnostic methods are considered, such as:

  • electroencephalography;
  • inspection of narrow specialists;
  • tomography;
  • blood analysis.

Only after diagnosis, the doctor will be able to choose the right treatment, which will get rid of the headache.

Treatment features

There are many causes of headaches in adolescents. Treatment must be selected separately for each child. That is why you first need to undergo a comprehensive examination. Be sure to provide a teenager with a healthy lifestyle, which includes:

  • obtaining vitamins and minerals with nutrition;
  • adequate sleep;
  • walks in the open air;
  • parental support.

In addition, it is additionally necessary to use medications, vitamin complexes. Medicines should be selected only by the attending physician, so you need to see a cardiologist, neurologist, pediatrician.

Drug therapy

If a teenager complains that he has a headache, then every mother wants to do so to ease his health and eliminate unpleasant symptoms. Many painkillers are allowed just from adolescence.

Drug treatment

You can safely give drugs that contain ibuprofen in their composition. “Nurofen” helps a lot from headaches in adolescents, as it acts very efficiently and quickly. It is also allowed to take medicines such as:

  • "Paracetamol";
  • Diclofenac
  • Drotaverinum;
  • Ketorol.

Of course, giving the child’s drugs thoughtlessly and in large quantities is strictly prohibited, as this can lead to the development of complications. Initially, you need to determine the main cause of pain. If the head hurts constantly and painkillers do not help to stop the pain, then you need to consult a doctor.

Folk remedies

A headache in a teenage girl can occur due to hormonal changes in the body. In addition to medications, you can additionally apply folk remedies and methods. A cool compress on the head helps quite well and quickly.

Folk remedies

Aromatherapy also works well. You can take a bath with peppermint and orange oils. They help relieve stress and relax. It must be remembered that they can provoke the occurrence of allergies, therefore, before taking a bath, you need to make sure that there are no contraindications to their use.

If the pain was triggered by an overstrain, then even ordinary walks in the fresh air can help. It is recommended to ventilate the room before bedtime, as well as provide the child with a full sleep and rest. Before going to bed, it is advisable to drink a cup of relaxing herbal tea, as this will help you fall asleep much faster, and when you wake up, no pain will be disturbed.

What could be the consequences

The main complications of severe headache in adolescents include migraine status and stroke. The first violation is characterized by the fact that attacks of pain appear one after another. Additional symptoms include repeated vomiting, nausea, severe weakness, dehydration, and even cramps. This condition may take several days. Migraine status is characterized by the fact that:

  • pain persists for more than 72 hours;
  • not eliminated by conventional medications;
  • differs in severe symptoms.

A migraine stroke is characterized by the appearance of signs of migraine with an aura. A recurrence of dangerous symptoms is observed for 7 days or more. Focal signs of a stroke are also observed.

If dangerous symptoms occur, you should definitely visit a doctor, since complications can be very dangerous for the health and even life of the child.


To prevent the occurrence of headaches in boys and adolescent girls, you must follow the basic rules of prevention. These include:

  • walk as often as possible on the street;
  • get enough sleep;
  • Do not spend much time on the computer and TV;
  • drink herbal teas;
  • do a head massage.

It must be remembered that frequent headaches must be observed by a doctor, as this may be a symptom of a pathological process in the body. This is especially necessary if the soreness does not go away even after rest or attacks become regular.

Headaches in adolescence can be very dangerous, as they often appear due to hormones that simply go through the roof during this period. In some cases, a severe and persistent headache can be a sign of a dangerous disease - meningitis, stroke, brain sarcoma, vascular pathologies, as well as problems with other organs and systems.

Observing all the basic rules of prevention, you can achieve a very good result and prevent the frequent occurrence of pain.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/A13481/

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