Before the construction of a country house or cottage, the customer will have to choose the technology by which the building will be built. This directly affects the speed of construction, the final cost of construction and the operational characteristics of housing. Over the past few years, the technology of building houses with fixed formwork has gained wide recognition. It is suitable for the construction of any low-rise buildings, shortens the construction period and facilitates the finishing work.
What is fixed formwork?
Fixed formwork is a special hollow blocks. Of these, the walls of the building are assembled at a prepared construction site. Reinforcement is installed in the voids (for greater strength) and poured with prepared concrete solution. After the solution has hardened, the formwork is not removed, but left in this form. Blocks and formwork panels are equipped with special jumpers-joints that prevent structural divergence.
Thus, fixed formwork performs 2 tasks at once:
- contributes to the rapid formation of walls;
- serves as a heater of the building and its decoration (finish or draft).
The advantages of building houses with fixed formwork
This technology is often chosen for individual and low-rise construction in connection with many advantages.
- Speed of work. A small country house can be built in this way in just a few weeks. Such a result will not give any other building material (brick, wood, foam concrete).
- Without special lifting equipment. The use of fixed formwork involves a floor-by-floor erection, so lifting mechanisms are not required.
- Financial savings on insulation. Blocks or slabs of fixed formwork are already equipped with a sufficient layer of heat-insulating material. Due to this, in Novosibirsk, in Khabarovsk, in Saratov, the construction of houses from fixed formwork will allow the construction of a warm building with minimal heating costs.
- Finishing savings. Some types of blocks already have an attractive finish. All other views eliminate surface alignment.
Stages of building houses with turnkey fixed formwork
The entire construction process can be divided into several stages.
- Construction site preparation.
- Land marking.
- Foundation device.
- Installation of formwork blocks.
- Concrete pouring.
- The formation of overlap.
- Installation of the roof.
At the same time, the construction of monolithic houses with fixed formwork has some features and nuances that may not be known to everyone. Important recommendations and advice can be heard from experienced builders.
The foundation is one of the most important components of any building. The quality and durability of the structure directly depend on it. Unlike brick buildings, houses with fixed formwork are lighter. This makes it possible to use not a monolithic tiled foundation, but an ordinary strip foundation.
Marking the construction site. Before starting work, make sure that the site has a flat surface. In this case, the error in calculations and measurements will be minimal. After marking, the accuracy of the corners is checked again. This can be done using a level (building level).
Digging a trench. The width of the trench for the strip foundation should be about 40 cm, the depth about 50 cm. Particular attention is paid to the bottom of the trench. It should be as even as possible, since the errors here will affect the quality of the building. It will not be possible to eliminate the difference in the height of the formwork.
Preparation of a drainage pillow. By this definition, it is customary to mean a layer of gravel and sand. The layer thickness is about 150 mm. It performs several functions:
- uniform distribution of load on the foundation;
- thermal insulation.
Reinforcing bars are installed in the finished drainage pillow. They are necessary for strength and reliable bonding of fixed formwork parts.
Sole of the foundation. This step is necessary for the final leveling of the bottom of the trench. The sole of the foundation is a concrete mortar, which is distributed in a thin layer on the layer of the drainage pillow.
To prepare the basement, metal beams or wood bars are usually used. In some cases, it is advisable to use reinforced concrete.
According to the technology of building a house from a fixed formwork, you can do without zero overlap at all. If this option is chosen, the internal space of the foundation is filled with sand, heat-insulating plates are laid on top. The final stage is the pouring of the concrete floor.
The erection of walls begins only after the concrete layer of the foundation has completely dried.
The first level of formwork blocks is put on the reinforcement, in which jumpers are installed to increase strength. This is done taking into account the technical documentation.
At this stage, it is worth considering the location of utility networks (electrical wiring, water supply, sewage, ventilation). This is necessary because the walls of the building will be monolithic and it will be more difficult to resolve the issue after construction. Based on the drawings, the layout of the engineering networks is planned and the grooves are cut out.
Begin the installation of formwork blocks from the corners. At the same time, at the first level of the blocks, the location of the door and window openings is marked.
The joints of the blocks of the second level should be shifted relative to the joints in the first row. This technology is completely analogous to brickwork, which adds strength and durability to the walls. The third row is laid out similarly to the first and so on.
After installing the formwork and laying engineering networks, they begin to pour concrete. Saving on building materials is not worth it. The components of the solution must be selected strictly taking into account technical documents.
When building houses with fixed formwork, it is most convenient to fill the mortar with a deep vibrator. This tool eliminates voids and evenly distributes concrete. If there is no deep vibrator, you need to perform manual tampering. A rubber or wooden mallet will help.
The upper block of the wall is not poured with concrete to the very edges - the concrete seam should be inside the formwork.
Interfloor ceilings are formed using a strapping reinforced concrete belt. It has wooden beams or floor slabs. Some developers prefer to use monolithic floors in this case. Their peculiarity lies in the fact that the floor slab and the strapping belt are one common design.
The next stage depends entirely on the features of the technical documentation. This may be the construction of a second floor or the formation of a roof.
Fixed formwork in the goods market is presented in several versions at once. In this case, the most popular is the construction of a house from a fixed formwork made of expanded polystyrene. This building material makes the wall decoration process quick and cost-effective.
Immediately after completion of the construction, the walls remain perfectly flat and ready for cladding. You can use any of the options for this:
- front panels;
- plaster mix;
- a rock;
- lining wooden.
Interior decoration can be absolutely any. If wallpapering is planned in the rooms, then previously drywall sheets are fastened with drywall sheets. Ceramic tiles and PVC panels are glued with special glue directly to the formwork.
The construction of houses from fixed formwork: reviews
Choosing technology for the construction of a country house, customers try to get acquainted with the reviews.
In general, builders respond positively to this technology, calling as advantages:
- simplicity of the process;
- speed of construction of houses;
- the opportunity to save on lifting equipment.
Most of the people living in these houses also speak out positively about the construction of houses from fixed formwork. They note:
- relatively cheap house construction;
- heat preservation in the winter;
- energy saving.
Thus, the technology of building houses from fixed formwork is characterized by numerous advantages. It has every chance to become one of the most popular types of construction in the next few years.