Preparation of the construction site for construction is necessary in order to quickly and without delay start the construction process. It allows you to minimize a number of negative risks, and also facilitates the coordination of interaction and the implementation of various stages.
Always, before starting the construction or dismantling of buildings, it is necessary that the preparation of the territory of the construction site be carried out. This is required for maximum labor efficiency and human safety. Today, these issues are regulated by a number of regulatory documents. They contain a detailed description of the activities that need to be carried out before starting work. Developers should primarily focus on building codes and regulations (SNIP), relevant state standards, as well as a number of other regulatory documents. It should be borne in mind that local governments can determine the norms of temporary use of territories for the needs of construction crews, as well as the implementation of work that does not apply to the area of the work site.
This is the very first stage. Preparation of the construction site for future work requires the creation of fences around it, as well as closely located hazardous areas. It is also necessary to install information boards at the entrance, where numerous data are indicated. Among the most important are the name of the object, the builder, the contractor, the contact details of the persons responsible for the object, the start and end dates, and the terrain after the construction is completed. But the requirements are not limited to this. So, for example, the contacts of the performers should still be on the shields, fences, mobile buildings, large-sized tooling elements, cable reels. In addition, points for washing or cleaning wheels of vehicles, as well as bins for collecting garbage, can be installed. The rules for the preparation and maintenance of construction sites require that all waste be promptly removed and disposed of without polluting the environment.
The construction of temporary structures
To ensure the process requires special buildings. They are being built for a certain time. After completion of construction, these structures are subject to liquidation. They are used for domestic, warehouse, administrative and other purposes. In this case, land reclamation, transfer of communications, demolition of temporary structures and many similar moments should be provided. Preparation of the construction site for the start of construction in this regard should be coordinated with the State Fire Service, environmental and sanitary-epidemiological supervision, as well as the local government.
Solving challenges with groundwater and groundwater, as well as with the flooding of the territory
It is always necessary to consider that geological and hydrological conditions can change. This can happen both during the work and during the operation of the facilities. First of all, you need to check the probability of such calls:
- The presence or the possibility of formation in the subsequent hydration.
- Natural seasonal / perennial groundwater level fluctuations.
- The possibility of its change under the influence of technogenic factors.
- The degree of aggressiveness in relation to the materials used underground structures and corrosion activity.
Technical preparation of a construction site almost always requires an assessment of possible changes in groundwater level. So, constructions and buildings of the 1st and 2nd classes should have a guarantee for 25 and 15 years of service. In this case, it is necessary to take into account possible natural seasonal and perennial fluctuations in levels, as well as the potential for flooding the territory. For buildings of the 3rd class, such an assessment is allowed not to be performed. In addition, the construction project should include measures designed to prevent the deterioration of the physicomechanical properties of the foundation soils, violation of the normal operation conditions of buried premises, the development of adverse geological processes, and so on.
What needs to be done to improve the standard situation
Preparation of a construction site for construction involves the following activities:
- Waterproofing of underground structures.
- Implementation of measures to limit the rise in groundwater level, as well as eliminating possible leaks from communications fluid-carrying communications. These are drainage, special channels, anti-filtration devices.
- Implementation of measures to prevent chemical and / or mechanical suffusion of soils. This is sheet pile, drainage, soil consolidation.
- Arrangement of a stationary network of observation wells, allowing to control the development of the flooding process, timely eliminating leaks from water-carrying communications.
Additionally, if the presence of an aggressive environment (groundwater, industrial effluents) is provided, which can adversely affect the materials of buried structures, it is necessary to implement anti-corrosion measures that are carried out as part of the preparation of the construction site. If it is planned to conduct activities below the piezometric level of the pressure masses, then the pressure exerted by them should be taken into account. To stabilize the situation, special measures are envisaged to prevent the breakthrough of groundwater in the pits, the expansion of their bottom, and the ascent of the structure.
This is necessary in cases where it is planned to build underground or buried structures. Water reduction is also necessary when creating pits. For this purpose, use drainage, drainage, needle filters, down wells. Also, water reduction involves the implementation of measures that impede the deterioration of the construction properties of the soil at the base of structures and do not allow a violation of the stability of the slopes of the mine. The design should include trays and grooves for collecting surface and groundwater with their subsequent discharge to sumps located outside the base of the structure. As a rule, this ends with their pumping to the surface. Moreover, the reserve should be at least 50% if there are two or more pumps, and 100% in cases where only one is working. In case of impossibility to use it, it is necessary to divert water from the decreasing system by gravity to existing drains or places of discharge.
About drains and needle filters
If we talk about the first, then it is necessary to note a wide variety of possible implementations. So, trenches are arranged in a territory free of development. Closed tubeless can be used for short-term operation. For example, in a pit or on landslide slopes. They vary in their functionality and bandwidth. For example, tubular drainage is done in soils, the filtration coefficient of which is two meters per day.
The laying of underground galleries for water reduction is allowed only in cases where other methods are not suitable for this purpose or this approach is economically feasible. In general, it is always necessary to take into account a number of factors in order not to spend extra money. For example, vacuum drainage is used in granules, where the filtration coefficient is less than two meters per day. Acupuncture need, as a rule, in systems of building water reduction. And electric drainage is used in poorly permeable soils, for which the filtration coefficient is less than 0.1 meters per day.
Demolition of buildings
Preparation and arrangement of a construction site often suggests that they have a particular structure. It is usually necessary to tear it down. After all, it interferes with the work or is not provided for in the plan. During demolition, it is always necessary to monitor compliance with labor safety requirements in accordance with current regulatory documents. In the process itself, various approaches, materials and methods are used. For example, explosives, special equipment and other similar devices. At the same time, various security requirements are put forward. For example, if you are using an excavator with a ball-woman - this is one thing. The use of explosives is already a completely different level, which requires that cordon be exposed across the territory of the work.
Learn more about the regulatory framework.
First of all, and in the most detail, all the issues considered regulate SNiP. Building codes are what the organization and technical preparation of the construction site should rely on in any case. They are all-Russian state standards. Therefore, ignoring them will not work.
It should be noted that building codes and regulations are not issued as a single complex. SNiPs consider a variety of situations, so the specifics can vary significantly.
The entire topographic picture should be displayed in the general construction plan. Site, under construction / permanent buildings, temporary infrastructure - everything should be here. The general plan should exist in two versions: objective and general. The first is necessary for individual buildings, while the second is used in relation to the entire plot. Under the temporary infrastructure refers to the entire complex of structures that are built exclusively for the construction period. These are parking lots, roads, warehouses, domestic buildings and so on. That is, everything that is on the site, with the exception of the building itself.
The preparation of construction sites must include:
- Allocation of hazardous areas for workers, followed by enclosing with protective fences and marking with safety signs.
- All temporary structures (houses, cabins and so on) should be located outside unsafe territories.
- Approaches going at a slope of 20 degrees or more should be equipped with gangways or stairs with a railing.
- If you plan to move through loose soil, then you need to equip the flooring.
- Shufra, wells and other similar structures must be equipped with covers, their own fences or shields. In the dark they need to be lit with signal lights.
- A passage of at least 60 centimeters wide and 1.8 m high should be laid to the workplace.
But this is not a complete list. The whole book is needed for everything and the format of the article is not suitable for this purpose.
Site preparation is not possible without a number of requirements. It is necessary to approach the matter with quality, so that later you do not have to redo it. It will not be superfluous to remember the modest fact that safety is written in the blood of those who ignore it. Therefore, the preparation of the construction site should be carried out carefully, this must be done, fully paying attention to all problem areas, providing quality conditions for workers.