If the house has a bathroom, toilet, water supply, then a competent system of collecting and discharging wastewater is necessarily done. This is especially true for private homes, as they usually do not have the ability to connect to a central sewer. Of course, it’s good when there is a central drain nearby, which you can connect to with permission. But if there are no such amenities, you have to get out, install the collection system yourself. This question is quite simple to solve - a cesspool is made on the site.
Of course, you can install a septic tank (make it yourself or buy it ready), which can filter the water, and at the outlet it can be used even for domestic purposes. But you can make a simple cesspool with your own hands, all consumed water will be discharged into it. The construction of such an engineering structure is not difficult, materials can be used practically any. We will talk about how to make a cesspool with our own hands in our article.
By type of structure, these structures can be divided into two groups:
- With absorbing (filtration) properties - the liquid gradually leaves into the soil through holes in the walls.
- Completely tight designs - metal, concrete or plastic tanks.
Many "experts" argue that it is necessary to choose a design according to one indicator - the number of people living in the house. The daily water intake depends on this. If the total volume of water exceeds 1 cubic meter. meter, it is best to apply sealed containers.
But you can reflect and estimate. Suppose the pit depth is about 4 m (this value is quite enough, otherwise the sewage machine will not be able to completely pump out water). About a meter will take to deepen the highway. The pipe will be at a depth of about a meter. Useful depth is only 3 m. In the event that the diameter at the pit is impressive and the total volume is about 6 cubic meters. m, pumping will have to be done weekly.
From an environmental point of view
But if you choose a leaky design in which water will go into the ground, then the interval between pumpings can be increased several times. True, this design is the last among all species in terms of environmental friendliness. Of course, if the hydrological indicators of your site allow you to make a cesspool for a leaky house, then use this design. It is also worth paying attention to the features of the landscape.
Sewage facilities have side walls and an upper floor slab. A crushed stone pillow is placed at the bottom. It is with its help that the water is filtered from sewage of a large fraction. Very often perforations are made on the walls - this improves fluid drainage. Using the lid mounted on top of the pit prevents the possibility of foreign objects (branches, debris, etc.) getting into it. A hatch must be present - with its help you can monitor the level of wastewater in the pit, as well as pump out.
Advantages and disadvantages of designs
The main advantage of even the best cesspool is that it has a very simple structure and the construction costs are small. In addition, pumping out needs to be done much less frequently than when using a sealed system. But there are a bunch of drawbacks:
- The amount of wastewater that can be thrown into the pit during the day is limited.
- It is impossible to build such a system with a high location of groundwater.
- The degree of wastewater treatment is extremely low.
- Over time, unpleasant odors appear around the pit.
- During operation, the filtration capacity decreases.
But many of these shortcomings are not scared, since the advantages overlap them. Very often literally construction waste is used in the construction of pits - what turned out to be unnecessary.
If we talk about sealed structures, then they are completely devoid of the disadvantages mentioned above. But for normal operation, it will be necessary to pump out waste regularly. The main difference from leaky structures is that the bottom and walls are completely waterproof. A ventilation riser is also required.
But the construction technology for both types of pits is similar, the only difference is in the work on sealing. When building a cesspool in the country, be sure to take into account the fact that the sewage machine should freely approach it (if you do not plan to pump the tank yourself). If desired, you can use various bacteria - they are able to process all sewage and get almost pure water and sediment.
Materials for the construction of the pit
As you know, you can build a structure literally from any material. But if you care not only about the functional side, but also think about the appearance, you should pay attention to bricks, gas silicate blocks or even concrete rings. Often, the walls of the pit are made of concrete, or containers are made of metal with a cut bottom. Often you can find designs from car tires. Look, of course, they are not very respectable, but the tires cope with their task.
In the manufacture of sealed pits, concrete rings, plastic or metal tanks are used. It is also allowed to build walls of brick, but on the condition that the bottom will be concreted. In this case, a completely sealed container will be obtained. And now let's look at all types of materials that are used in the construction of cesspools and sewers.
Structures built using bricks are the simplest and most inexpensive. After all, you can use the cheapest and low-quality material. With the help of a brick, you can lay out walls with or without a gap. And if there are holes in it, then there will be no problems at all. You can build a pit of almost any volume - it all depends on what kind of concrete you need.
But brick buildings have their drawbacks, they are characteristic of any unpressurized system. This is, first of all, a negative impact on the environment and siltation. Brick under the influence of an aggressive environment can quickly collapse - the maximum resource of filtering sewage is about 20 years.
If you need to reduce the cost of building sewage, then use the available material - car tires. Of course, it is best to use large diameter tires, for example, from trucks. Slightly damaged tires can be found, unfortunately, on the side of the road and in forest belts along the road. At service stations, often tires are simply thrown away and burned as unnecessary.
To make a drain pit from tires, it is enough to dig a pit suitable for the diameter. At the bottom, it is necessary to equip a layer of gravel. Then install the tires in the pit - they will not allow the walls to crumble. In this way, you can equip a cesspool for the toilet. But there are drawbacks - the likelihood of environmental pollution is very high.
Also, the system quickly becomes silted. To increase the filtering ability, spacers can be placed between the tires. The resulting gaps will allow you to divert part of the wastewater through the soil on the sides of the pit.
Monolithic reinforced concrete and rings
In the manufacture of a monolithic reinforced concrete system, it is necessary to install a crate. Concrete is poured into it. The result is a durable and reliable pit in which the bottom and walls will be waterproof. Such a capacity will last a very long time, but it is necessary to spend a lot of money and effort on it. Therefore, it is difficult to call this design the best. These systems today almost completely replaced ready-made reinforced concrete rings. It is not difficult to make a cesspool in a private house from the rings - this is cheap, and you can buy materials almost everywhere.
To make a sewer from the rings is quite simple - dig a pit, put parts of the structure in it and cover it with a stove with a hatch. The cost of the material is relatively small, but do not forget that you will need to hire special equipment with which material is loaded, transported and unloaded. You won’t even be able to manually move the concrete ring - its mass is very large. Of course, you can listen to Archimedes and apply leverage. But this work will be painstaking.
But on the basis of the rings you can create both sealed and absorbent systems. On sale you can even find rings in which the walls are perforated. Such cesspools in private homes in recent years are not uncommon - they are quite cheap and affordable.
Plastic and metal containers
But it will be easier to bury a barrel of suitable volume at some depth. And you can make at least a sealed system, even absorbent. Make holes in the barrel - get a drain of fluid from it. Additionally, you can cut the bottom - the liquid will become much better absorbed into the soil. But in this case, it is necessary to pour a layer of crushed stone at the bottom of the pit.
Sewer size selection
Of course, without preliminary calculations of the entire structure can not do. To ensure that the operation is as efficient as possible, no emergencies are created, it is necessary to perform several preparatory actions. First you need to make a size calculation. They directly depend on how much water is consumed per day by people living in the house. It is also necessary to consider the presence of pumping, type of soil, mode of use. And now let's talk about how to make a cesspool and what needs to be considered during construction.
What should be taken into account when calculating:
- The average value of the volume of effluents per person. Take into account the use of a toilet, bathtub, washing machine. This value, in order not to consider it independently, is taken equal to 200 liters. Sometimes this indicator can be reduced to 150 liters.
- Calculation must be carried out at the maximum value of water flow.
- When calculating the volume, it is necessary that the water contains three times more water than is discharged per day.
The dimensions of the well must be chosen so that it is convenient not only to build it, but also to have the possibility of supplying the trunk. It is desirable that the depth be approximately 2 times greater than the diameter (or the larger of the sides if the shape is quadrangular). If you plan to use anaerobic bacteria for cleaning, these proportions will be quite enough.
What if a sealed container?
When building a funded system, you must use the same data as in the past case. But the volume of wastewater produced by the family per day must be multiplied by the interval between pumpings. For example, if you plan to pump out twice a month (which is about 1 time in two weeks), then you need to use a tank with a minimum volume of 6.3 cubic meters for a family of three. m. How, counted? Very simple - multiply 150 liters by 3 (the number of people living permanently in the house), and then by 14 (the interval between pumpings).
But, before making a final conclusion about the dimensions of the sewage system, it is necessary to consult with public utilities (or those people who carry out pumping of drains). Most of the cesspool machines cannot pump out more than 4 cubic meters. m. True, there are models of machines that take immediately up to 8 cubic meters. m. But you definitely need to make a small margin in volume, because the cesspool machine may linger for a couple of days due to a breakdown.
How to choose a place for sewage?
When choosing a place for the construction of sewers, it is necessary to be guided by the construction SNiP, the norms of the current legislation in the field of sanitary and epidemiological issues, as well as common sense. If all the recommendations are put together, the list will be quite large.
But let's highlight the most basic ones that need to be considered when constructing cesspools in areas:
- The pit should not be in a lowland - otherwise it may be flooded during floods or torrential rains.
- Filtration facilities should not be done in areas where groundwater occurs at a depth of less than 4 meters.
- The distance from the pit to the foundation of the nearest building is at least 10 m; from trees and road - more than 4 m; from fences - over 1 m.
- The distance from the wells to the sewage system must be maintained: for loamy soil - more than 30 m; for sandy or sandy - over 50 m; for clay - from 20 m.
- As mentioned earlier, at the stage of choosing a place, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of accessing a machine for pumping sewage. After all, pumping out cesspools should be done a couple of times a month.
Most of the recommendations apply to filtration pits. If we are talking about a sealed container, then when choosing a place it is enough to be guided by common sense. The main thing is to stay away from the place of residence so that smells do not spoil the mood.
At the very end, you need to draw up a detailed action plan and draw, if not a drawing, then at least a sketch - it shows all sizes, distances from objects (houses, fences, roads). Be sure to specify the points at which sewer pipes enter the pit. Even if you are completely confident in your abilities and consider all construction work to be trifling, it is recommended that you still make a small sketch. It will not be superfluous during construction.
Brief construction instructions
After you determine the location of the pit and do all the calculations, you can begin excavation. In the manufacture of sewers from a plastic or metal container, as well as from rings, bricks, it is necessary to dig a pit. It can be done using both technology and shovels.
Of course, the easiest way is to use the services of companies that provide earthmoving equipment - spend a little more money, but save your back. After the pit is made, a container or concrete rings are placed in it. Such a cesspool device today can be found quite often. But keep in mind that the ring must be installed strictly vertically. When working, you will need such a tool and material:
- Sand and cement - a solution is prepared from it.
- Crushed stone and a fine fraction boot - a pillow is made from it at the bottom.
- A rod of metal or fittings - a lid is made of it.
- Hatch and frame - the cost of such a product in stores is not more than 1000 rubles.
- Waterproofing material.
- Trough and buckets for mortar.
- Level, plumb line, cords.
- Bayonet and shovels.
You may also need a drill, hammer drill, drill. Having such a set of tools and materials, you can begin work on the construction of a cesspool. Reviews about designs of this type are only positive. System maintenance is minimal. And if everything is done correctly, then the sewage system will serve faithfully for a long time.