The most effective way to organize training for children with disabilities at home is the distance form, which provides for the use of advanced information and communication technologies.
As part of the educational process, which can be implemented remotely, a special curriculum can be formed for each student , adapted to its individual health characteristics and educational needs (plans for further training and obtaining the desired profession).
How is the abbreviation HIA?
It occurs quite often and means limited health opportunities. Accordingly, children with disabilities are children who have various kinds of deviations (mental and physical), causing violations of the natural course of their overall development, and therefore they cannot always lead a full-fledged lifestyle.
Within the educational aspect, a narrower definition can be formulated. Children with disabilities are children who have impaired psychophysical development (speech, vision, hearing, musculoskeletal system, intelligence, etc.), and most often they need special corrective training and education.
Distance Learning for Disabled Children
The right to education is a priority socio-cultural right for every person in view of the fact that it is perceived as a sphere of social life that most significantly affects the process of human development.
In modern conditions, it is such a category of citizens, such as children with disabilities, that is faced with problems (legal, financial, organizational, technical and social) regarding the possibility of its implementation. In this regard, the study of the constitutional-legal mechanism ensuring the right to education is becoming particularly relevant and acute.
Teaching children with disabilities through distance learning allows each child to be provided with high-quality education, regardless of the particular place of education. Obtaining knowledge with the help of an information computer environment provides the child with the opportunity to acquire the appropriate professional skills necessary for him in the future for work and for a decent existence in general.
In practice, it has been repeatedly proved that learning through distance educational technologies makes it possible for children with disabilities to receive the appropriate education, as well as their full development of the basic general education program of secondary general education.
The benefits of distance learning
Here, a network teacher and tutor (teacher-consultant) will be able to conduct lessons using a special technological map, which is used as a mechanism for individualizing the educational process through a variety of individually-oriented models of organization and curriculum, and a lesson (depending on the educational needs and capabilities of this category students).
The primary task of education here is the preservation of the individuality of the child, as well as the creation of suitable conditions for his self-expression. This can be achieved through differentiated learning, taking into account the degree of assimilation of knowledge by the student, the pace of his activity and the development of certain skills and abilities.
What conditions need to be created in educational institutions for children with disabilities?
They should guarantee features such as:
1. Achievement of the planned results in relation to the development by all students of the basic educational program of primary general education.
2. The use of both ordinary and specific grading scales of academic achievements of children with disabilities, which correspond to their educational needs.
3. Adequacy of the assessment of the rate of variability of the life competence of each child with disabilities along with other students, as well as parents (or legal representatives) and school employees.
4. Individualization of the educational process regarding children with disabilities.
5. Focus on the development of the ability of this category of students to interact and communicate with peers.
6. Development and identification of the abilities of children with disabilities through sections, circles, clubs and studios, as well as the organization of socially useful activities, including social practice, using the capabilities of existing educational institutions for additional training.
7. Involvement of students with disabilities in their creative and intellectual competitions, design and research activities, and scientific and technical creativity.
8. Involving children with disabilities, parents and teachers in the process of developing the basic educational program of primary general education, as well as in the design of the internal social environment and the formation of individual learning routes.
9. The use in the educational process of advanced, scientifically sound correctional technologies that are focused on the special educational needs of students with special needs.
10. Interaction in one educational space and a general, and special school, which will make it possible to productively use many years of pedagogical experience regarding the education of children with disabilities, as well as use specially created resources for this.
So, you will need to develop an individual program for children with disabilities, in which their parents must be involved. In this way they realize the degree of their responsibility regarding the quality of life of their child, not only in the family, but also in school.
Cerebral palsy in children: causes
There are about 50 of them. However, they all go back to the unfavorable course of pregnancy and subsequent childbirth.
The most significant (causing serious negative consequences) include:
1. Acute oxygen starvation during childbirth (for example, due to tight umbilical cord entanglement, premature detachment of the placenta, etc.) or after birth (premature baby: less than 37 weeks of pregnancy or weighing less than 2 kg). Especially dangerous are premature births using cesarean section.
2. The presence of intrauterine infections (cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, rubella, etc.).
3. Severe degree of hemolytic disease of the newborn (immunological incompatibility of the blood of the mother and fetus).
4. A number of teratogenic factors affecting the central nervous system mainly in the early stages of pregnancy (for example, taking illegal drugs, including hormonal contraceptives, radiation exposure, etc.).
And these are just a few negative factors that can cause cerebral palsy in children and cause significant harm to the health of the child.
Characteristics of children with visual impairment
As already explained above, children with disabilities are a category of people with a certain kind of disability. In this case, the visual function.
According to the results of a study of this category of children, the following trends in the dynamics of specific visual diseases were identified:
1. Significantly increased the number of children with residual vision (up to 90%). Their them:
- completely blind - 3-4%;
- with light perception - 7%;
- with a visa of more than 0.06 - 10%.
2. The percentage of complex complex visual diseases has increased. However, only a few cases are associated with visual impairment, which are characterized by a single lesion of its function. Numerous studies in this area have confirmed that most preschoolers have 2-3 eye diseases.
3. The increase in the number of defects that accompany visual disease. As a rule, they are associated with a violation of the central nervous system.
Integration of disabled children in preschool education
This is the process of teaching children with disabilities in a general educational institution. Very significant attention is being paid to this issue today.
Integrated learning implies the fact that children with disabilities in preschool educational institutions must acquire the same skills, abilities and knowledge and at the same time as normally developing ones.
It is preschool age that is considered the most favorable for the integration of disabled children into the collective of their peers with normal development.
Education for disabled children at school
They are accepted there after receiving the appropriate conclusion of the pedagogical and medical-psychological commission, which must necessarily indicate that this child can be trained in a comprehensive school.
It also contains information regarding the psychological and pedagogical features of the development of a particular personality, as well as diagnostic results in these areas. Then the relevant recommendations regarding the accompanying work are grouped in the student's portfolio.
A well-known fact is that the transition from Kindergarten to the walls of elementary school is very crisis, therefore, the paramount task of the support service is the preventive work with children with disabilities regarding prevention of problems of the adaptation period.
What can children with disabilities face in the process of transition from preschool to school?
The problems of the adaptation period include:
- personal (a high degree of anxiety, self-doubt, a low level of educational motivation, inadequate self-esteem);
- socio-psychological (a number of problems of social maladaptation);
- cognitive (attention, thinking, memory, perception, etc.).
The main activities of the escort service
Children with disabilities at school should receive support throughout the course of education in the following areas:
- Diagnostic measures regarding the emotional-volitional, motivational and cognitive spheres of the student’s personality.
- Conducting analytical work.
- Organizational events (school psychological, medical and pedagogical consultations, large and small teachers 'councils, training seminars, meetings with students' parents, teachers and representatives of the administration).
- Advisory work with students and their parents, as well as teachers.
- Preventive measures (implementation of programs aimed at resolving issues regarding interpersonal interaction).
- The systematic conduct of corrective and developmental measures (individual and group seminars with difficult to adapt students).
Classification of the considered category of persons according to A. R. Muller
It is based on the specific nature of the violation, that is, children with disabilities can be:
- hard of hearing
- late deaf;
- visually impaired;
- with violation of the functions of the musculoskeletal system;
- with violation of the emotional-volitional sphere;
- with impaired intelligence;
- with a delay in mental development;
- with severe speech impairment;
- with complex complex developmental disabilities.
Six types of dysontogenesis of V.V. Lebedinsky
As mentioned earlier, children with disabilities are a category of people with certain disabilities. So, the first variety of such dysontogenesis is mental underdevelopment. His typical model is mental retardation.
The second type is delayed development, represented by a polyform group having various variations (infantilism, impaired school skills, underdevelopment of higher cortical functions, etc.).
The third type includes damaged mental development (initially normal, and subsequently impaired due to injuries or diseases of the central nervous system).
Fourth - deficit development, which represents various variations of the psychophysical, but subject to serious violations of either vision, or the musculoskeletal system, or hearing.
The fifth species is a distorted development characterized by a combination of the above species.
Sixth - violation in the process of personality formation. At the same time, various forms of psychopathy are a typical model.
The essence of activities to support children with disabilities in boarding houses
Correctively developing work with children with disabilities is help in their psychological and social development (the formation of images of positive social behavior and familiarization with the culture of society, training in skills and everyday life activities).
The structure of education and training of children with developmental disabilities is designed so that in each age period both general and specific correctional tasks are provided.
What should be emphasized in activities to maintain the category of persons under consideration?
Children with disabilities are unique in their own way, so corrective care should be as individualized as possible. It requires painstaking, patient and focused work. Teachers should clearly understand what teaching methodology is best applied to a particular student, how to help him cope with the difficulties encountered during the training, mainly related to his illness.
Working with children with disabilities of preschool age involves involving them in a specially designed educational and developmental environment, as well as organizing their proper qualified training, which should take into account their age and psychophysical characteristics.
So, in the end, we should once again recall the decoding of the concept considered by us. Children with disabilities - a category of people characterized by any kind of disability (mental or physical), which requires a specially organized approach to the learning process.