Many owners of private real estate deal with the issues of home improvement on their own. One of the important stages of construction or repair in a cottage or in the country is to create a staircase to the second floor with your own hands. This facility must be constructed in accordance with existing regulations. Only in this case the staircase will be durable and safe.
There is a certain technique for building a staircase. All the intricacies of this process will help to understand the advice of specialists. The methodology for building the stairs will be discussed in detail below.
General job description
Do-it-yourself stairs to the second floor (photo below) can be erected in various ways. The object can be assembled from a ready-made kit, which is purchased in specialized companies. This greatly simplifies the construction process. This option for arranging the stairs is optimal for the novice master. Also, if the owners of the house do not have enough free time to carry out construction work, they can assemble a ready-made kit.
Ready-made designs are highly functional. They are designed in accordance with all safety rules and building codes. However, the design choice of such structures is limited. If the owners want to build a truly exclusive staircase, it is recommended to make all its elements on their own.
In this case, you need to make the correct calculation and draw up a design plan. Otherwise, such an object can become traumatic, short-lived. Its operation will not be comfortable.
In the process of manufacturing the stairs to the second floor with your own hands, you need to take into account and fulfill the requirements regarding not only its practicality, but also aesthetics. This object should harmoniously complement the existing interior. Therefore, the staircase is created from different materials. Its decoration is performed in different styles. It can be either simple, concise, or have different curlicues, decorations.
To choose the right staircase design, you need to consider the style of the interior, as well as the dimensions of the room, the location of this structure in the room. Planning is a mandatory step in building a staircase in a private home.
A direct, spiral staircase with your own hands to the second floor has a number of mandatory structural elements. Minor objects may be added to them. Most often they serve as decoration.
Mandatory elements of the stairs are steps and supports (support steps). These are the most basic parts of the design. Steps consist of two components - a vertical and a horizontal plane. In some cases, the first part of the stage can be dispensed with. It is called a riser. The horizontal plane of the steps is called a step. The riser serves as support for her.
The support of the stairs can be in the form of a bowstring or a kosour. The first option supports the steps from the ends, and the second - from the bottom.
Also, one of the important structural elements is the railing. They may not be present on all stairs. However, their presence increases the comfort and safety of movement on the stairs. If the house has kids or people of advanced age, the presence of a railing is required. Balusters are called the vertical supports of the railing. They perform both a functional and a decorative function.
There are specific structural elements. They are used in order to build a staircase to the second floor with their own hands. For example, for a screw structure, you will need to build a rack. On it, steps are fixed with a certain step, climbing upward in a spiral.
In some cases, the steps support the bolts. These are bolts that attach to the wall. They are used for special staircase designs.
The created staircase of the second floor with your own hands made of wood or metal can have a different design. The choice depends on the preferences of the owners of the house, as well as on the characteristics of the room. One of the most common types is the flight of stairs. It includes one or more straight inclined planes with steps.
This is one of the most comfortable types of construction. The disadvantage of the flight of stairs is the need for a sufficient amount of free space. If the house is small, this design will look bulky and inappropriate. There are certain standards for creating such a design.
If a staircase includes two to three flights, they must have at least 3 and no more than 15 steps. Otherwise, it will not be convenient to move around. The average number of steps of one march is 9-11 pieces. Between marches arrange small spans.
A do-it-yourself staircase to the second floor (wood, metal) can be made without risers, if the steps cannot be of sufficient width. In this case, steps can be fixed both on kosoura and on the bowstring. They are made of boards with a thickness of about 60-70 mm or special metal profiles.
If you plan to make a flight of stairs with one flight , but the number of steps will be more than 9, it is recommended to build a small dividing platform in the center. This will make the structure stronger.
It is quite possible to make a staircase with your own hands to the second floor on the bolets. This type of mount is quite durable and looks aesthetically pleasing. The word "boltz" comes from the German word bolzen. It means “bolt” in translation.
This fastener is presented in the form of a pin with a thread at the ends. Using these clamps, the steps and structural elements are fastened together. Bolts crash into the wall. This type of construction makes the staircase visually easier. It looks airy, which allows it to harmoniously fit into the existing interior.
There are no risers in this design. A staircase on the stairs harmoniously fits into the interior of both a spacious and a small room. A properly mounted staircase on the rails is very strong and durable.
A do-it-yourself metal or wooden staircase made on the second floor can not be installed in the center of the room. It must be mounted next to the wall. Bolts crash into the wall. Without this, a similar design cannot be assembled.
At the same time, increased requirements are put forward to the wall. It should be made of a dense, durable material. On the plasterboard partition, you can not install the bolts. Such stairs are most often delivered ready-made. They can only be collected and installed in a prepared place. It will be quite difficult to independently calculate such a design.
Screw variety of designs
Wooden, forged or metal stairs to the second floor with their own hands can be made using screw technology. This design can be mounted in any part of the room. It does not require a wall mount.
It is worth saying that the spiral staircase is distinguished by the complexity of the design. However, it has many advantages. This design takes up little space in the room. Therefore, it can be installed even in a small room. It can become the central decorative object of the interior. Such a staircase is quite beautiful and can be made in different styles.
The disadvantage of a spiral staircase is its low level of comfort. You cannot quickly go down it. If necessary, it is not possible to lower or raise the overall furniture to the second floor with a spiral staircase.
For a private house, they most often choose a design that includes a stand. It can be made of metal or wood. The choice depends on the features of the interior decoration. It should be borne in mind that a wooden staircase to the second floor can be mounted on a metal support with your own hands. It is stronger and more durable. However, in the presence of metal steps, a wooden support is not used.
The design is mounted quite simply. The stand must be firmly fixed on the base of the floor in the room and on the ceiling of the second floor. Then steps are mounted to it with a certain distance. Their narrow edge is adjacent to the rack. The end of the steps should be wide enough. Otherwise, it will be inconvenient to move along such a ladder.
A spiral staircase must have a railing. They should be based on balusters. The material for them is chosen in accordance with the overall design of the structure.
Calculation of a spiral staircase
Before you create a design of a screw or other type, you need to make the correct calculation. The staircase to the second floor with your own hands in this case will be mounted correctly. It is necessary to take into account the dimensions of the opening. The smaller they are, the steeper the staircase will be.
To carry out the calculation, you need to select a suitable area in the room. Its geometric center is determined. A rack will be installed here. The distance from the center of the rack to the end of the width of the opening in the ceiling is measured. It will correspond to the length of the steps.
To make it convenient to walk along such a staircase, you need to make a tread with a width of at least 20 cm (in the middle). In the widest place, such a step should be about 42 cm. The easiest way is to independently create a similar wooden structure, if you have the skills to work with such material.
You need to choose high-quality material, conduct its proper processing. If the master does not have the skills to work with wood, he must entrust the work of installing the stairs to a professional. Otherwise, such a design may be unsafe.
If the master has a welding machine and knows how to use it, he can design a staircase to the second floor with his own hands from metal. All structural elements will need to be created independently (if possible) or purchased in a specialized store. The second option is preferable. According to experts, working with wood is easier. However, more durable structures are obtained using metal.
To make a staircase to the second floor with your own hands, you need to consider the requirements of the standards. In this case, the design will be safe and functional. It is necessary to correctly determine the level of inclination of the stairs. The number of steps and their dimensions are also calculated.
If the staircase does not adjoin two walls, it is necessary to establish a handrail. Their height is about 80-85 cm. If there are children in the house, balusters should not be further from each other than at a distance of 10-12 cm.
The width of the tread should be from 20 to 30 cm. In this case, the stairs will move comfortably. Their number must be odd. Studies have shown that this design is more convenient to navigate.
The staircase must withstand high loads of at least 350 kg / m². In this case, the coating material of the steps cannot be slippery. You need to choose materials that have a relief surface. The fastening of the structure and all its elements must be rigid. Shaking stairs, railings, etc. is not allowed.
The staircase should not have an angle of elevation greater than 45º. In this case, the span width should be from 85 cm. The standard is considered to be a span width of 1-1.2 m. It is advisable to make platforms on the spans. This makes the structure less traumatic. In this case, only high-quality, durable materials should be used. It is inadmissible to use fasteners, structural parts with defects.
Calculation of the stairs
To create a staircase to the second floor with your own hands, the dimensions of the structure must be calculated in advance. This is a mandatory requirement when installing such an object. The easiest way to create a staircase on the kosoura. To perform the calculation, you need to measure the height of the room. The length of the wall near which the staircase will be installed is measured.
Next, a plan is drawn up on paper. The values obtained during the measurements indicate the scale on the plan. Next, draw a triangle. His hypotenuse will be the surface of the stairs with steps. The legs are the amount of lift and the length of the floor. The angle of the structure is determined. It should not be more than 45º. If the staircase is more gentle, it will take up more space in the room.
Next, the number of steps is determined. This indicator is determined by dividing the length of the floor leg by the size of the step steps (minimum 20 cm). The number of steps is marked on the plan. The height of the risers should be 10-12 cm. To calculate them, you need to divide the height of the total lift to the standard height of the risers. So the size of the kosour is calculated. Also on the plan you need to specify the width of the stairs.
Such stairs are almost always made with their own hands from wood. Metal structures are purchased ready-made. They will only need to be properly welded or fixed using bolted connections.
The stairs to the second floor with their own hands are most often made of wood. It is necessary to make all its elements correctly. To do this, you need to prepare the plan correctly. In accordance with the drawing, all structural details are transferred to the material. It is important to choose the right wood. It must be dried thoroughly, be sufficiently strong and thick.
It is very important to make the kosour correctly. The strength of the structure will depend on this. For kosour, you will need to prepare a solid array without cracks, knots or defects. The thickness of this structural element should be at least 45-50 mm. The treads may be 1.5 cm wider than the space reserved for them on the kosoura.
Treads are made of durable wood. It needs to be polished with high quality. The edges should be rounded. The thickness of the boards is at least 3 cm. The risers also need to be done carefully. They do not need a board of large thickness. They will only support the treads. The thickness of the boards can be 2 cm in this case.
Balusters are created in accordance with the plan and the selected design. They can be purchased with mounts. If you have a wood processing machine, balusters can be made independently.
The railing is made of quality material. There should be no defects on it. The surface should be perfectly machined and polished. Do not railing with an uneven surface.
Installation of stairs
After manufacturing or purchasing all the parts, the staircase to the second floor can be assembled and installed with your own hands. This is the most critical part of the job. First set the kosour. They are fixed on the floor to the support beam. At the top of the beam, recesses are cut under them. Anchor bolts are used for fixing. The position of the kosour is checked using a level.
First, the risers are mounted. Only after this can you set the steps. Self-tapping screws are used for fixing. Fixation of risers and treads is carried out in a complex. You need to move upward.
Balusters are mounted on each step. If the house has small children, then you need to install two supports on each tread. A railing is laid on top. They are fixed on the lower and upper support pillar.
When the entire system is assembled, it is processed using a grinding machine or sandpaper. Wood is impregnated with antiseptic compounds. Further, the surface can be varnished in several layers. When the surfaces are dry, the structure will be ready for use.
Having considered how to create a staircase to the second floor with your own hands, you can build it in accordance with all building codes.