Among the most influential organizations in the world, the United Nations is always mentioned. Knowing the principles of her work is important for any person who wants to keep abreast of world political, social and economic events. What is the history of this institution and who is among the participants?
What is the UN?
The United Nations is called a kind of center for solving the problems of mankind. Thirty other agencies operate within the UN. Their collective work is aimed at ensuring that human rights are respected throughout the planet, poverty is reduced, and there is a constant struggle against diseases and environmental problems. An organization can intervene in the politics of any state if its course does not comply with generally accepted moral standards. Sometimes resolutions of the UN Security Council and various sanctions against such countries can be extremely decisive.
The emergence of the UN occurred for a number of military, political and economic reasons. Humanity has come to the realization that an endless series of wars undermines universal prosperity, which means that measures must be taken to ensure peaceful conditions that guarantee prosperity and progress. The first steps towards the creation of the organization were made in 1941, when the Atlantic Charter was founded and the Declaration was signed by the Government of the USSR. At that time, the leaders of the largest countries managed to formulate the main task, which was to find a path to peaceful international relations. The following year, in Washington, twenty-six states participating in the anti-Hitler coalition signed the United Nations Declaration. The name of this document in the future will form the basis of the name of the organization. In 1945, at a conference in which the USSR, USA, China and Great Britain took part, a final document was created, which later became the UN Charter. June 26 - the date of signing this agreement - is considered the day of the United Nations.
Content of the UN Charter
This document is the embodiment of the democratic ideals of mankind. It formulates human rights, affirms the dignity and value of every life, the equal rights of women and men, and the equality of different peoples. According to the Charter, the goal of the UN is to maintain world peace and to resolve all kinds of conflicts and disputes. Each member of the organization is considered equal to the others and is obliged to conscientiously fulfill all the obligations assumed. No country has the right to threaten others or use force. The UN has the right to intervene in hostilities within any state. The Charter also emphasizes the openness of the organization. Any peaceful country can become a member.
UN principle of work
This organization is not a government of any country and cannot legislate. Her powers include the provision of funds that help eliminate international conflicts, as well as the development of political issues. Each country that is a member of the organization can express its opinion. The main UN bodies are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Trusteeship Council, the Economic and Social, and, finally, the Secretariat. They are all located in New York. The International Court of Human Rights is located in Europe, or rather, in the Dutch city of The Hague.
UN Security Council
In the light of constant military conflicts and unremitting tension between some countries, this body is acquiring special importance. The UN Security Council includes fifteen countries. It is worth noting that ten of them are periodically elected according to a certain procedure. Only five countries are permanently members of the UN Security Council: Russia, Great Britain, China, USA and France. For an organization to make a decision, at least nine members must vote for it. Most often, the result of the meetings are resolutions. During the existence of the Council, more than 1300 of them were adopted.
How does this organ function?
During its existence, the UN Security Council has acquired a certain number of methods and forms of influence on the situation in the world. The authority may condemn the state if the actions of the country do not comply with the Charter. In the recent past, members of the UN Security Council have been extremely dissatisfied with South African politics. The state has been repeatedly convicted of holding apartheid in the country. Another situation in Africa, in which the organization intervened, was the military operations of Pretoria against other countries. In this regard, the UN has created numerous resolutions. Most often, an appeal to the state involves a cessation of hostilities, a demand for the withdrawal of troops. At the moment, the UN Security Council is most concerned about Ukraine. All the organization’s capabilities are aimed at resolving a conflict situation and reconciling the parties. The same functions were already used during the resolution of Palestinian issues and during the period of hostilities in the countries of the former Yugoslavia.
In 1948, the UN Security Council developed a settlement method such as the use of observer groups and military observation missions. They had to control how the state to which the resolutions were directed complied with the demands for a cessation of hostilities and a ceasefire. Until 1973, such observers were sent only by permanent members of the UN Security Council from among Western countries. After this year, Soviet officers began to be part of the mission. For the first time they were sent to Palestine. Many monitoring bodies still control the situation in the Middle East. In addition, permanent members of the UN Security Council form missions that operate in Lebanon, India, Pakistan, Uganda, Rwanda, El Salvador, Tajikistan and other countries.
Collaboration with other organizations
The activities of the Council are constantly accompanied by collective work with regional bodies. Cooperation can be very diverse, including regular consultations, diplomatic support, peacekeeping, and observation missions. The meeting of the UN Security Council can take place jointly with the OSCE, as happened during the conflicts in Albania. The organization also teams up with environmental groups to regulate the situation in the west of the African continent. During the Georgian armed conflict, the UN teamed up with the CIS peacekeeping force.
In Haiti, the Council collaborated with the OAS on an international civilian mission.
Security Council Tools
The system for resolving world conflicts is constantly being improved and modernized. Recently, a method has been developed to control nuclear and environmental threats, warnings about hotbeds of tension, mass emigration, natural disasters, famine and epidemics. Information on each of these areas is constantly analyzed by experts in these areas, which determine how great the danger is. If its scale is indeed alarming, the chairman of the UN Security Council will be notified of the situation. After that, decisions will be made on possible actions and measures. If necessary, other UN bodies will be involved. The priority of the organization is preventive diplomacy. All instruments of a political, legal and diplomatic nature are aimed at preventing disagreements. The Security Council actively promotes reconciliation of the parties, the establishment of peace and other preventive actions. The most commonly used tool is a peacekeeping operation. More than fifty such events have been held during the existence of the UN. PKO refers to the totality of the actions of impartial military, police and civilian personnel aimed at stabilizing the situation.
The Security Council includes several subsidiary bodies. They exist to control UN sanctions. Such bodies include the Board of Governors of the Compensation Commission, the Special Commission on the Situation between Iraq and Kuwait, the Committees in Yugoslavia, Libya, Somalia, Angola, Rwanda, Haiti, Liberia, Sierra Llone and Sudan. For example, in Southern Rhodesia, careful control of the economic situation led to the elimination of the racist government and the return of Zimbabwean citizens to independence. In 1980, the country became a member of the UN. Effectiveness of control also manifested itself in South Africa, Angola and Haiti. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that in some cases, sanctions also had a number of negative consequences. For neighboring states, the measures taken by the UN turned into material and financial damage. However, without intervention, the situation would have led to much more serious consequences for the whole world, so some of the costs justify themselves.
Council Charter Rules
Despite the fact that sometimes the consequences can be quite controversial, this UN body must function without interruption. This is decided by the Charter. According to him, the organization must make decisions as quickly and efficiently as possible. Each member of the Security Council must constantly be in touch with the UN for the immediate performance of their functions in an emergency. The interval between meetings of the body should not be more than two weeks. Sometimes this rule is not respected in practice. According to average estimates, the Security Council meets for formal meetings about seventy-seven times a year.