It is difficult to imagine at least some activity without planning. And even more so in the case of commercial structures. But for many, the secret is that planning is divided into types. They depend on the goals pursued, scope and many other points. So what types of enterprise planning exist?
Let's start with the terminology. Planning means the development and establishment by the enterprise management of certain qualitative and quantitative indicators, which determine the pace and development trends in the current and future periods. What is his role? Planning is the central link in the economic mechanism of production management. There are several methods for its implementation. They relate more to the essence of planning. The methods will be briefly reviewed to get a better idea. But the main attention will be given to the essence and types of planning at the enterprise. How is division and demarcation carried out in this case? The emphasis is on timing. In total, there are three types of planning at the enterprise: operational-production, current and future. In general, they are all interconnected and form an integrated system. In addition, there are several additional classifications that we will talk about. By the way, it may be such that many types of planning are used at the enterprise, and not just one.
What are they? Speaking about the types and methods of planning at the enterprise, it should be noted that they are complementary. That is, one without the second is impossible. So there are:
- Balance method. He is engaged in establishing links between sources of resources and their needs. Associates the production program with available capacities, evaluating the complexity and number of employees. As part of the compilation, balances of working time are created, material, energy, financial, and so on.
- Settlement and analytical method. It is used to formulate plan indicators, analyze their factors and dynamics, which are needed to provide the necessary quantitative level. This method is used to determine the base value of key indicators. Indices of their changes are also calculated.
- Economic and mathematical method. It is used to develop a model of the dependence of indicators when changes in quantitative parameters are revealed in comparison with the main factors.
- Graph analytical method. It provides the ability to display results using an image. Thus, economic analysis is displayed by graphic means. Thus, it is possible to identify a quantitative relationship between the associated indicators.
- Program-targeted methods. What is their feature? These methods allow you to present the plan as a program, that is, in the form of a set of tasks and activities that are united by one goal and timed to a certain date. Their characteristic feature is an aim to achieve specific end results. The core of the program are general goals. They are concretized in the form of certain tasks that must be solved. They are achieved by certain performers that are endowed with all the necessary resources.
Types and methods of planning at the enterprise are closely interconnected. Without the second, it is difficult to imagine the first.
About species diversity
First of all, it should be noted that it all depends on what is taken as the basis for the classification. So, if the timing is the support, then there will be operational-production, current and future planning. This is perhaps the most famous division. But, besides him, there are also a number of others. For example, you can recall indicative and strategic planning. You can also mention the achievements of Akoff, widely used abroad. According to him, planning can be reactive, inactive, proactive and interactive. In addition, the classification can be carried out on the basis of functional purpose, level of control, objects, and many other specific points, on which a lot depends, although their application is rather highly specialized. It should be noted that the types of plans and forms of economic planning are complementary and smoothly flowing into each other. Therefore, many points will be similar or even partially repeated. After all, the content and types of planning at the enterprise as a whole are created to form a holistic system that will provide the most accurate information on the direction of development of the commercial structure. But this requires good coordination.
On elements of the planning system and factors of negative influence
So, the essence of the topic under consideration is the concretization of development goals for a certain period, when economic tasks and means of their achievement are determined, as well as the timing and sequence of implementation. In this case, it is necessary to take care of the availability of financial, labor and material resources that are needed. In this case, it is necessary to take into account such elements:
- Horizon Planning. This is a specific calendar period of time. It is for him that they make plans. Its role may be a decade, year, month, week, day, shift, hour, and so on.
- Planning interval. This is the minimum calendar period of time, in the context of which certain measures are envisaged (year, quarter, month).
- The subject of planning. This is a structural unit or a responsible official who develops all necessary measures or is responsible for their implementation.
- Planned indicators. This is the information that will accompany the event (cost elements, stock item, and so on).
All of them are part of an integrated system that determines what will be the sequence of achievement of the agreed specific goals. This takes into account the possibilities of efficient use of available resources. At the same time, one has to deal with factors that negatively affect the formation of plans:
- Poor initial condition. This refers to poorly structured information, difficulties in determining and measuring indicators.
- Poor end state. A large number of goals, a strong influence of external factors, conditions of instability.
- A large number of individuals that take part in the planning.
- Uncertainty regarding available alternatives.
- Responsibility problems when plans are made by some employees and others bear responsibility.
- Imperfection of selected tools.
- Problems of control at the stages of preparation, approval, implementation and adjustment.
About perspective, current and operational-production planning
All of them depend on the period for which planning is carried out. The future is based on forecasting. Thanks to him, it is estimated what the situation will be in the future. There are long-term (up to 15 years) and medium-term (3-5 years) planning. In the first case, it is necessary to speak about the program-targeted nature of the developments. So, an economic activity strategy is being formed for a significant period, during which expansion of the boundaries of existing markets, as well as the development of new ones, are taken into account. The goals and objectives of this plan are specified in the medium term. Here, attention is paid to the organizational structure, production capacity, capital investment, financial requirements, development and research, and the like.
Current planning is developed as part of the medium-term plan (in annual terms) and is used to refine its performance. Attention is paid to the structure and characteristics of the activity of factory, workshop, brigade sections.
Operational and production planning is used for clarifications in short time periods, such as month, week, shift, hour, and for individual units (workshop, team, workplace). All this is used to ensure the rhythmic production and measured functioning of the enterprise. Operational-production planning brings the tasks to the immediate performers.
All three species considered now form a single integrated system. It should be noted that it affects many aspects. For example, attention is paid not only to production, but also the types of financial planning at the enterprise are considered. Indeed, for something, materials and raw materials must be purchased.
Strategic and tactical planning
What are they? Strategic planning sets goals and works on means to achieve them. At the same time, the main areas of development are highlighted. There are such types of strategic planning at the enterprise:
- Long term. It reflects the main goals and general strategy of action. Alternatives may be developed that are not included in the plan. But they are reflected in the applications. They include generalized indicators (most often financial). Developed for up to 10 years.
- Medium term. They are based on the real demand for products created by the organization. It provides for the possibility of changing the characteristics that it possesses, adjusting production technology, financial constraints, market conditions and more. Developed for a period of one to five years. Separately, it is worth recalling the types of financial planning in the enterprise that are oriented specifically at such time periods.
- Short term. It covers a period of several months or even weeks. This type of planning is aimed at ensuring the regulation of the current use of available resources. It is implemented through the preparation of calendar production programs, as well as monitoring them, managing inventory and raising funds.
- Prompt. His tasks include maintaining control over the daily loading of equipment, observing the sequence of operations, the placement of employees and the like.
From strategic planning distinguish tactical. It includes medium- and short-term periods. The objectives of tactical planning - to contribute to the implementation of specific problems of economic development of the enterprise. The operative is run by lower management, for example, team leaders. You can see that the types of planning at the enterprise by the timing, and strategic planning are very similar. It really is. It must be remembered that the divisions depend on what is taken as the basis. Therefore, it is not surprising that many species intersect.
About foreign approaches
There is one interesting approach, which is very popular in science and practice. But not here, but abroad. It is called biteye mining. Initially, it was formed as a kind of technical and economic planning. But in the conditions of the market it was constantly expanding. And in the end it became an independent species. In addition, we can recall the classification of Akoff:
- Reactive planning. Based on the analysis and extrapolation of past experience. It is carried out from the lower links of the enterprise and gradually rises up.
- Inactive planning. The stake is on maintaining the existing position of the enterprise for stabilization and survival of the commercial structure.
- Proactive (proactive) planning. Based on forecasts that take into account future changes. It is implemented from top to bottom by optimizing decisions.
- Interactive planning. Its essence lies in designing the future, when the emphasis is on improving the efficiency of enterprise development, as well as the quality of people’s work.
Directive and indicative planning
And now let's look from the point of view of the obligations of the adoption and subsequent implementation of the tasks. And here there are directive and indicative types of plans. The planning of the enterprise in the first case is characterized by the mandatory adoption and subsequent implementation of tasks. It, for example, permeated all levels of the economic system of the Soviet Union. It should be noted that from time to time it fettered the initiative of enterprises. In a market economy, this approach is used only within the framework of commercial structures in the development of current plans. But this applies more to the private sector.
Indicative planning is a form of state regulation of the level of production through the impact on prices and tariffs, tax rates, the minimum level of wages and other indicators. Reliance in this case is made on the parameters that characterize the state, as well as the direction of economic development, which are developed by government. They are called indicators. They can be mandatory (but this is limited) or be advisory in nature (most often practiced). Although indicator planning can be implemented in private structures, this still applies to the development of perspectives.
Brief other classifications
And now let's look at other types of enterprise activity planning that exist, but are quite specific. So, depending on the functions of their purpose, determine:
- Production plans. It discusses what will be created and how. All types of production planning at the enterprise rely on meeting the demand for material and labor resources to complete the tasks.
- Commercial. They provide for the sale of finished products, as well as meeting the requirements for material and technical support of enterprises.
- Investment. This includes plans for the technical re-equipment, as well as the development of the enterprise.
- For labor and wages.
- Other plans for functional purpose.
Depending on the level of enterprise management, distinguish:
- Plans of structural units.
- Functional departments (accounting, personnel).
- Work plans of brigades and sections.
Depends on the objects:
- By type of activity.
- For specific goods, works, services.
- On the release of new products.
- By types of products that are developed or developed.
In addition, they do not fall within a certain framework:
- Consistent planning. This means that a new set of measures is being developed after the previous one has expired.
- Rolling planning. In this case, it is provided that, as part of the complex of the event is completed, its audit is carried out, and the remaining period is revised taking into account actual data.
- Flexible planning. The possibility of revision, taking into account ambiguous conditions or sudden expenses, is provided.
That's the whole widely used classification of types of planning in the enterprise. All other developments have not yet received widespread recognition.
So planning at the enterprise, types of plans and their specific points were considered. Of course, this is far from all the information. You can additionally consider the types of operational planning at the enterprise, consider the work of teams and shifts by the hour ... But this will already be unnecessary. In addition, there are many points that are interesting to a limited circle of people. For example, types of enterprise profit planning - this information is necessary only for employees of analytical services and senior management. Whereas for the foreman of the site it is not needed.