Transportation of goods by rail is carried out according to special rules. These regulatory documents are developed at the international level, periodically undergo changes and are adjusted. Modern Rules for the transport of dangerous goods by rail were introduced in 1996. They operate not only in Russia, but also in other CIS countries. The document must be observed by all road workers and persons involved in sending and receiving goods.
The quality of railway transport in Russia is directly related to the development of industry, trade, and economic sectors. The railway connects the central regions of the country with the most remote corners. Vital goods and food, large consignments of materials for plants and factories are supplied through it. Finally, hundreds of thousands of people make business trips and travel by train. Therefore, it is so important to ensure the safety of transportation, to prevent fires on tracks, in wagons.
Particular attention is paid to safety rules for the transport of dangerous goods by rail. In this case, special conditions must be observed. Documents for transportation must be attached to any cargo, in which its type and description are indicated. The hazard type is set in advance. One or another number is assigned to the cargo, in accordance with which further transportation is carried out.
Special documentation with the rules for the transport of dangerous goods by rail is then used to prevent accidents on the tracks and to avoid loss of life. Norms and rules have been developed over time taking into account all the nuances. A separate document regulates the features of the transportation of oil bitumen and the transportation of goods in combined traffic, where water transport is also used.
There are also rules regarding container sealing, filling out transport documents, and handling claims regarding cargo and transport problems.
It is imperative to obtain a license from the Rostransnadzor for activities on loading dangerous goods. Dangerous goods are also addressed in UN special recommendations.
There is a special type of cargo that can cause fires, environmental pollution and other disasters. They are called dangerous and need certain conditions of transportation and storage. All types of dangerous goods are divided into nine classes. Accurately determine the type of hazard will help a special table in the annexes to the Rules for the transport of dangerous goods by rail. The typology is quite complex, has many subspecies and groups. In addition, a certain classification code is assigned to each type of cargo.
For example, the second class includes three subclasses. These are all gases: poisonous and non-toxic, flammable. They are placed in special containers, as there is a great danger of explosion. Uncooled liquefied gases are transported in portable tanks with a non-separable design.
Tanks are used not only for transportation of gases, but also for liquid cargo. This can be non-hazardous goods: food (for example, flour), materials for construction. Dangerous are transported in specialized tanks. There is the ability to maintain a certain temperature, conditions. There are tank cars of the “vessel” type, the liquid in which is constantly under pressure. Containers specially prepared by the sender may also be used if quality certificates are attached to them. Clear requirements for wagons can be found in the Rules for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail.
Road workers should be informed about the condition of the tank fittings. Dangerous goods are transferred from a container to another on the territory specially designated for this operation. Some goods of the second class (uncooled) are transported in the boiler of portable tank cars.
Rules for the transport of dangerous goods by rail in tanks
Marking of tank wagons is mandatory. If the dangerous cargo has been moved, and the tank has not yet been cleaned after it, the name is indicated: "empty tank car". And after it, information about the last cargo (its class, subgroup and additional characteristics) is applied. Tanks with large capacity may be components of a battery car. All its elements are tightly coupled. Dangerous cargo tanks should be followed by cover cars. Before transportation, check the operation of temperature conditions, pressure in the container. It should be borne in mind that some hazardous substances belonging to different types should not be transported together.
Flammable liquids (carbon disulfide and others) are placed in special barrels, whose corks are located upward. This cargo has a third hazard class , the sign must be indicated on the wagon. Solid products that are flammable are classified in class 4.1. Safe matches are placed in special plywood boxes, and consumer packaging is also suitable for celluloid products.
Class 5 hazardous goods can also cause fires and fire. Therefore, the wagons for them must be thoroughly cleaned. Particularly stringent requirements are imposed on the transport of toxic and toxic substances by the Rules for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail. Their class norms are 6.1.
Caustic substances are attributed to the eighth type. Among them are mercury, nitric acid. Transportation is carried out with escort, in a special container with seals. Packaging should be carefully treated with a flame retardant. All other dangerous goods are classified in class 9.
The carrier must make sure in advance that all conditions for the transport of dangerous goods are met. An invoice should be prepared with a list of all transported materials and substances. If among them there are those that are dangerous, then be sure to check with the list in the regulatory document. Explosive goods belonging to the first class are entered in a separate list, together with information on their delivery. Six months before this, permission is taken from government agencies to carry out this type of activity.
In addition to the invoice draw up an emergency card. This document indicates the properties, rules for the transport of dangerous goods by railway transport and possible actions to eliminate the accident in transport. On the invoice put a red bar, indicating the danger of the goods.
The danger of the transported goods must be warned by special signs. Marking is placed on wagons and containers.
The standards regulate its size, font and color - always rich and vibrant. Designations are an indication of the type of cargo, for example, for flammable gases it is a green hue with a black inscription and a picture. For more dangerous toxic gases, a color is chosen that will be clearly visible on the tank - white. The hazard class on the signs is placed at the bottom of the square, the angle of which can be different, depending on the level of danger.
In addition, a special plate with the same cargo number according to the UN classification is used. A digital code is placed there, which is a sequence of actions in an emergency. The color of the rectangle is orange. In addition to all designations, an emergency card is given. Marking is carried out before shipment, during loading.
Failure to comply with the conditions for the transportation of goods that are dangerous can result in various kinds of negative consequences. Explosions caused by death and serious people, damage to equipment can be attributed to the most severe ones. Fire can spread to nearby buildings. The ingress of hazardous substances into the environment leads to air pollution, causing poisoning of animals and humans. As a result, serious diseases can occur: respiratory tract, skin, blood circulation, etc.
The toxic and infectious substances of the sixth class can imperceptibly get on human clothing, and through it - on the surface of the body. As a result, symptoms of dizziness appear, the temperature rises, which in the absence of urgent treatment leads to the death of the victim. Therefore, even if a leak of such substances is detected in the wagon, processing measures should be minimized so that the worker does not come into contact with the surface of the package. Compliance with the rules for the transport of dangerous goods by rail of the Russian Federation is the responsibility of all freight carriers.